April 21 in U. S. History Apr 20, 2010 21:04:29 GMT -5
Post by Evon on Apr 20, 2010 21:04:29 GMT -5
CHRIST IS RISEN!
HE IS RISEN INDEED!
CHRIST IS RISEN!
HE IS RISEN AS HE SAID!
HE IS RISEN INDEED!
CHRIST IS RISEN!
HE IS RISEN AS HE SAID!
April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar.
There are 254 days remaining until the end of the year.
Days until elections:
U.S. Debt Clock: www.usdebtclock.org/
A German woodcut depicting the massacre, one of the few woodcuts that survived the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and the fire at Torre do Tombo
1506 The three-day Lisbon Massacre comes to an end with the slaughter of over 1,900 suspected Jews by Portuguese Catholics.
1512 The Second Council of Pisa suspended Julius II as pope. To counter the political consequences of this action, Julius convened the Fifth Council of the Lateran in Rome less than a month later on 3 May.
1632 The Dordrecht Confession of the Mennonites was adopted. The Dordrecht Confession of Faith is a statement of religious beliefs adopted by Dutch Mennonite leaders at a meeting in Dordrecht, the Netherlands, on 21 April 1632. Its 18 articles emphasize belief in salvation through Jesus Christ, baptism, nonviolence (non-resistance), shunning those who are excommunicated from the Church, feet washing, and avoidance of taking oaths.
It was an influential part of the Radical Reformation and remains an important religious document to many modern Anabaptist groups such as the Amish. In 1725, Jacob Gottschalk met with sixteen other ministers from southeastern Pennsylvania and adopted the Dutch Mennonite Dordrecht Confession of Faith (1632). They also wrote the following endorsement of which he was the first to sign:
We the hereunder written Servants of the Word of God, and Elders in the Congregation of the People, called Mennonists, in the Province of Pennsylvania, do acknowledge, and herewith make known, that we do own the foregoing Confession, Appendix, and Menno's Excusation, to be according to our Opinion; and also, have took the same to be wholly ours. In Testimony whereof, and that we believe that same to be good, we have here unto Subscribed our Names.
1649 The Toleration Act was passed by the Maryland Assembly. It protected Roman Catholics within the American colony against Protestant harassment, which had been rising as Oliver Cromwell's power in England increased. In the English colony of Maryland, a law was issued by Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baron of Baltimore ( Lord Baltimore), the governor of the colony, banning criticism of various forms of Christianity and allowing people to practice their Christian religion freely. It was the first law establishing freedom of religion (or at least, Christianity) in North America. The law, the Maryland Toleration Act, helped set the stage for the freedom of religion that would mark the independent United States 140 years later.
1777 British attack Danbury, Connecticut On this day in 1777, British troops under the command of General William Tryon attack the town of Danbury, Connecticut, and begin destroying everything in sight. Facing little, if any, opposition from Patriot forces, the British went on a rampage, setting fire to homes, farmhouse, storehouses and more than 1,500 tents.
The British destruction continued for nearly a week before word of it reached Continental Army leaders, including General Benedict Arnold, who was stationed in nearby New Haven. Along with General David Wooster and General Gold Silliman, Arnold led a contingent of more than 500 American troops in a surprise attack on the British forces as they began withdrawing from Danbury.
Although they prevented the complete destruction of Danbury, the outnumbered American troops were unable to stop the British retreat. The British continued marching through Ridgefield and Compo Hill, Connecticut, en route to their ships anchored at Long Island Sound.
General Wooster was hit by a musket ball during the action; he died from his injuries May 2. General Arnold survived and notoriously became a traitor to his nation, plotting to turn over West Point and with it the Hudson River to the British in 1780. General Gold Silliman also survived, but two years later was kidnapped from his home and imprisoned by a gang of local Loyalists.
Silliman's wife, Mary Silliman, kept a detailed diary of her experiences during the American Revolution. Accounts of her life in The Way of Duty by Richard and Joy Day Buel and the subsequent documentary, Mary Silliman's War, reveal the internecine nature of the revolution in Connecticut--General Gold Silliman's own Loyalist neighbors, not British Redcoats or foreign mercenaries, kidnapped him. Mary Silliman's diary also demonstrates the ways in which the war affected all colonists, including non-combatants, pregnant mothers and farm wives like Mary. On her own, Mary Silliman managed to run her family farm, flee attack from the British army and negotiate her husband's release from his Loyalist captors. She also nursed her own midwife and neighbor, after the woman was raped by Redcoats for refusing to relinquish her house to their control.
1792 Tiradentes, a revolutionary leading a movement for Brazil's independence, is hanged, drawn and quartered.
1794 NYC formally declares coast of Ellis Island publically owned. In its history Ellis Island was also known as Dyre's Island, Bucking Island, and Gibbet Island before permanently acquiring the name of Ellis Island from Samuel Ellis, a New York City merchant who was the island's last private owner from the mid to late eighteenth century.
From 1794 to 1890 Ellis Island was used for military purposes by the U.S. Government after it purchased the island from the family of the late Samuel Ellis in 1808 for $10,000 through condemnation procedures. Fort Gibson was completed by the U.S. Army on the eve of the War of 1812 to aid in the coastal defense of New York, and was in use as a powder magazine by the U.S. Navy until the late nineteenth century.
The Battle of San Jacinto-1895 painting by Henry Arthur McArdle (1836–1908)
1836 Texas Revolution: The Battle of San Jacinto Republic of Texas forces under Sam Houston defeat troops under Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna. During the Texan War for Independence, the Texas militia under Sam Houston launches a surprise attack against the forces of Mexican General Santa Anna along the San Jacinto River. The Mexicans were thoroughly routed, and hundreds were taken prisoner, including General Santa Anna himself.
After gaining independence from Spain in the 1820s, Mexico welcomed foreign settlers to sparsely populated Texas, and a large group of Americans led by Stephen F. Austin settled along the Brazos River. The Americans soon outnumbered the resident Mexicans, and by the 1830s attempts by the Mexican government to regulate these semi-autonomous American communities led to rebellion. In March 1836, in the midst of armed conflict with the Mexican government, Texas declared its independence from Mexico.
The Texas volunteers initially suffered defeat against the forces of Santa Anna--Sam Houston's troops were forced into an eastward retreat, and the Alamo fell. However, in late April, Houston's army surprised a Mexican force at San Jacinto, and Santa Anna was captured, bringing an end to Mexico's effort to subdue Texas. In exchange for his freedom, Santa Anna recognized Texas's independence; although the treaty was later abrogated and tensions built up along the Texas-Mexico border.
The citizens of the so-called Lone Star Republic elected Sam Houston as president and endorsed the entrance of Texas into the United States. However, the likelihood of Texas joining the Union as a slave state delayed any formal action by the U.S. Congress for more than a decade. Finally, in 1845, President John Tyler orchestrated a compromise in which Texas would join the United States as a slave state. On December 29, 1845, Texas entered the United States as the 28th state, broadening the irrepressible differences in the U.S. over the issue of slavery and igniting the Mexican-American War.
Dwight L. Moody
1855 Boston Sunday school teacher Edward Kimball led eighteen-year-old shoe clerk Dwight L. Moody (1837–1899) to a saving faith in Jesus Christ at the Holton Shoe Store in Boston. A year and a half later Moody moved to Chicago, where he embarked on a preaching career, eventually becoming one of the most well-known Gospel evangelists of his day.
1856 First railroad bridge across Mississippi River. Because of the steamboat monopoly on transportation of goods, prices were high. When the first bridge across the Mississippi was built at Rock Island, IL to Davenport IA, Steamboat Packet companies definitely felt their livelihood threatened.
1857 Alexander Douglas patents the bustle. This lady definitely wore a hoop with this dress, and the yoke at the back of its skirt suggests she also wore a small pad or bustle. Women from this time period wanted their skirts to be bell-shaped. Unfortunately the small of the back caused "a falling in at the waist" that marred the silhouette they desired. The bustle's purpose was to help fill out that area and keep the skirt rounded at the top.
1862 Congress establishes US Mint in Denver CO. Established by an Act of Congress on April 21, 1862, the Denver Mint opened for business in 1863 as a United States Assay Office. Operations began in the facilities of Clark, Gruber & Company, a private mint then located at 16th and Market Streets and acquired by the Government for $25,000.
Bahá'u'lláh in 1868. The inscription lists his Persian name - Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí
1863 Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, declares his mission as "He whom God shall make manifest".
Lincoln's funeral train.
1865 Lincoln's funeral train leaves D.C. On this day in 1865, a train carrying the coffin of assassinated President Abraham Lincoln leaves Washington, D.C. on its way to Springfield, Illinois, where he would be buried on May 4.
The train carrying Lincoln's body traveled through 180 cities and seven states on its way to Lincoln s home state of Illinois. Scheduled stops for the special funeral train were published in newspapers. At each stop, Lincoln's coffin was taken off the train, placed on an elaborately decorated horse-drawn hearse and led by solemn processions to a public building for viewing. In cities as large as Columbus, Ohio, and as small as Herkimer, New York, thousands of mourners flocked to pay tribute to the slain president. In Philadelphia, Lincoln's body lay in state on in the east wing of Independence Hall, the same site where the Declaration of Independence was signed. Newspapers reported that people had to wait more than five hours to pass by the president s coffin in some cities.
Lincoln's funeral train was dubbed "The Lincoln Special." (His portrait was fastened to the front of the engine above the cattle guard.) Approximately 300 people accompanied Lincoln s body on the 1,654-mile journey, including his eldest son Robert. Also on the train was a coffin containing the body of Lincoln s son Willie, who had died in 1862 at the age of 11 of typhoid fever during Lincoln's second year in office. Willie's body had been disinterred from a plot in Washington, D.C. after Lincoln's death so he could be buried alongside his father at the family plot in Springfield.
In 1911, a prairie fire near Minneapolis, Minnesota, destroyed the train car that had so famously carried Lincoln's body to its final resting place.
1878 Leo XIII published the encyclical, "Inscrutabili dei consilio." It outlined a program of reconciling the Catholic Church with modern civilization, many of its details reversing policies of his predecessor, Pius IX.
1878 New York installs first firehouse pole. As fire stations developed into 2-story buildings, the second floor was used for sleeping and relaxation. When the alarm sounded the men charged down spiral staircases made of iron. Several stations had sliding chutes. Chicagoan David Kenyon of Engine Company No. 21 felt a would be faster than a chute. He built a wooden pole three inches in diameter and carefully sanded it and oiled it. The chief needed to be convinced Kenyon's idea would work. He gave permission for a hole to be cut for the pole, but the inventor had to promise to repair it if the pole failed. It was first used in 1878 and was very successful. In 1880, the first brass pole was built in Worchester, Massachusetts by Charles Allen of Engine Company No. 1.
1892 1st buffalo born in Golden Gate Park
Krag-Jørgensen, Norway. Prototype m/1892
1894 Norway formally adopts the Krag-Jørgensen rifle as the main arm of its armed forces, a weapon that would remain in service for almost 50 years. The Krag-Jørgensen is a repeating bolt action rifle designed by the Norwegians Ole Herman Johannes Krag and Erik Jørgensen in the late 19th century. It was adopted as a standard arm by Denmark, the United States of America and Norway.
1895 Woodville Latham demonstrated the first use of a moving picture. Brothers Otway and Gray Latham and their father Woodville demonstrated the Eidoloscope, a movie projector they built with the help of W. K. Dickson, who worked with Thomas Edison. In probably the first movie show in America, they showed scenes of boys playing in a park and a man smoking a pipe.
1898 Spanish-American War: The U.S. Congress, on April 25, recognizes that a state of war exists between the United States and Spain as of this date. The Spanish–American War was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States. Revolts had been endemic for decades in Cuba and were closely watched by Americans; there had been war scares before, as in the Virginius Affair in 1873. By 1897-98 American public opinion grew more angry at reports of Spanish atrocities, and the mysterious sinking of the battleship Maine in Havana harbor, Democrats and farmers especially pushed the government headed by President William McKinley, a Republican, into a war McKinley wished to avoid. Compromise proved impossible; Spain declared war on April 23, 1898; the U.S. Congress on April 25 declared the official opening as April 21.
The deck of SS Ypiranga around 1911
1914 Ypiranga incident: A German arms shipment to Mexico is intercepted by the U.S. Navy near Veracruz, Veracruz.
1918 World War I: German fighter ace Manfred von Richthofen, known as "The Red Baron", is shot down and killed over Vaux sur Somme in France. In the skies over Vauz sur Somme, France, Manfred von Richthofen, the notorious German flying ace known as "The Red Baron," is killed by Allied fire.
Richthofen, the son of a Prussian nobleman, switched from the German army to the Imperial Air Service in 1915. By 1916, he was terrorizing the skies over the western front in an Albatross biplane, downing 15 enemy planes by the end of the year, including one piloted by British flying ace Major Lanoe Hawker. In 1917, Richthofen surpassed all flying ace records on both sides of the western front and began using a Fokker triplane, painted entirely red in tribute to his old cavalry regiment. Although only used during the last eight months of his career, it is this aircraft that Richthofen was most commonly associated with and it led to an enduring English nickname for the German pilot--the Red Baron.
On April 21, 1918, with 80 victories under his belt, Richthofen penetrated deep into Allied territory in pursuit of a British aircraft. The Red Baron was flying too near the ground--an Australian gunner shot him through his chest, and his plane crashed into a field alongside the road from Corbie to Bray. Another account has Captain A. Roy Brown, a Canadian in the Royal Air Force, shooting him down. British troops recovered his body, and he was buried with full military honors. He was 25 years old. In a time of wooden and fabric aircraft, when 20 air victories ensured a pilot legendary status, Manfred von Richthofen downed 80 enemy aircraft.
1931 Ester Kiefer received a patent for ornamental paper.
2007 Aggie Muster at Reed Arena. The Ross Volunteers stand at attention as candles are lit for the deceased.
History of Aggie Muster
1922 The first Aggie Muster is held as a remembrance for fellow Aggies who had died in the previous year. Aggie Muster is a time-honored tradition at Texas A&M University. Muster officially began on April 21, 1922 as a day for remembrance of fellow Aggies. Muster ceremonies today take place in approximately 320 locations globally including Kabul, Afghanistan, and Baghdad, Iraq. The largest muster ceremony occurs in Reed Arena, on the Texas A&M campus. The "Roll Call for the Absent" commemorates Aggies, former and current students, who died that year. Aggies light candles, and friends and families of Aggies who died that year answer “here” when the name of their loved one is “called”. Campus muster also serves as a 50th year class reunion for the corresponding graduating class. Some non-campus muster ceremonies do not include the pageantry of the campus ceremony, and might consist simply of a barbecue.
1940 First $64 Question, "Take It or Leave It", on CBS Radio. The format of Take It or Leave It was fairly straightforward: participants would be asked a series of questions, arranged by difficulty. The first question was worth one dollar; the total doubled with each successive question. The seventh and final question was worth $64. After each correct answer, contestants could "take" their winnings and walk away or "leave it" in the hopes of answering another question and doubling their money. Questions often came from the fields of music, sports, history or science.
Audience participation was an integral part of Take It or Leave It's success; it wasn't uncommon for the crowd to coach a contestant or call out "You'll be sorrrreeeee" when a player chose to risk their winnings by moving on to the next question.
1942 World War II: The most famous (and first international) Aggie Muster is held on the Philippine Island of Corregidor, by Brigadier General George F. Moore (with 25 fellow Aggies who are under his command), while 1.8 million pounds of shells pounded the island over a 5 hour attack.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aggie_Muster#World_War_II
1945 World War II: Soviet Union forces south of Berlin at Zossen attack the German High Command headquarters.
1952 Secretary's Day (now Administrative Professionals' Day) is first celebrated.
1960 Founding of the Orthodox Bahá'í Faith in Washington, D.C. In the Bahá'í Faith, religious history is seen to have unfolded through a series of divine messengers, each of whom established a religion that was suited to the needs of the time and the capacity of the people. These messengers have included Abraham, Buddha, Jesus, Muhammad and others, and most recently the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. In Bahá'í belief, each consecutive messenger prophesied of messengers to follow, and Bahá'u'lláh's life and teachings fulfilled the end-time promises of previous scriptures. Humanity is understood to be in a process of collective evolution, and the need of the present time is for the gradual establishment of peace, justice and unity on a global scale.
A commemorative postage stamp
1962 The Seattle World's Fair (Century 21 Exposition) opens. It is the first World's Fair in the United States since World War II.
View from the observation towers of the New York State Pavilion; the Unisphere is in the center, Shea Stadium at far background left.
1965 The 1964-1965 New York World's Fair opens for its second and final season.
Tony Orlando & Dawn ~ Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree
1973 "Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Old Oak Tree" tops the U.S. pop charts and creates a cultural phenomenon. The yellow ribbon— has long been a symbol of support for absent or missing loved ones. There are some who believe that the tradition of the yellow ribbon dates back as far as the Civil War era, when a yellow ribbon in a woman’s hair indicated that she was "taken" by a man who was absent due to service in the United States Army Cavalry. But research by professional folklorists has found no evidence to support that story. The Library of Congress itself traces the cultural ubiquity of this powerful symbol to the well-known song by Tony Orlando and Dawn: "Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Old Oak Tree," which topped the U.S. pop charts on this day in 1973.
"Tie a Yellow Ribbon" was a massive international hit, holding the top spot on both the U.S. and U.K. charts for four consecutive weeks and earning upwards of 3 million radio plays in 1973. It was sung from the perspective of a man returning home after three years in prison and looking anxiously for an agreed-upon sign that the woman he loves would welcome his return. Songwriters Irwin Levine and L. Russell Brown got the idea for the song from a story they’d heard while in the Army. New York newspaper columnist Pete Hamill sued Levine and Brown for copyright infringement because he believed they took the idea from a 1971 column of his relating a very similar story as fact. Hamill dropped his suit, however, when researchers uncovered multiple versions of the same general tale dating back at least as far as the 1950s. "Probably the story is one of these mysterious bits of folklore that emerge from the national subconscious to be told anew in one form or another," Hamill said at the time. To use a more familiar term, it was an urban legend.
Fast-forward to January 1981, when the Library of Congress was inundated by press inquiries over the historical roots of the yellow ribbon. What prompted the sudden interest in the origins of the "tradition" was the spontaneous appearance all around the country of yellow ribbons welcoming the U.S. hostages home after 444 days in captivity in Iran. The Library’s experts heard assertions of connections to the 1949 John Wayne film She Wore a Yellow Ribbon, and they found a 1917 song called "Round Her Neck She Wears a Yeller Ribbon (For her Lover Who Is Fur, Fur Away)," but they found no actual evidence of anyone ever actually wearing yellow ribbons or tying them to trees, lampposts, etc. Instead, the Library of Congress ruled that the most compelling evidence explaining the origin of the yellow-ribbon "tradition" was to be found in a television interview with Penelope Laingen, wife of the U.S. Chargé d'Affaires in Tehran, whose ribbon-bedecked Maryland home appears to have started the trend in 1981. "It just came to me," she said, "to give people something to do, rather than throw dog food at Iranians. I said, 'Why don't they tie a yellow ribbon around an old oak tree.' That's how it started." Her reported inspiration: the Tony Orlando song that reached #1 on this day in 1973.
Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
1975 Vietnam War: President of South Vietnam Nguyen Van Thieu flees Saigon, as Xuan Loc, the last South Vietnamese outpost blocking a direct North Vietnamese assault on Saigon, falls.
1982 Rollie Fingers of the Milwaukee Brewers becomes the first pitcher to record 300 saves.
Rollie Fingers - Baseball Hall of Fame Biographies
1989 Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989: In Beijing, around 100,000 students gather in Tiananmen Square to commemorate Chinese reform leader Hu Yaobang.
1992 The first discoveries of extrasolar planets are announced by astronomers Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail. They discovered two planets orbiting the pulsar PSR 1257+12.
2004 Five Islamist suicide car bombers target police stations in and around Basra, killing 74 people and wounding 160.
1729 Catharina II the Great, born, writer/emperess of Russia, Under her direct auspices the Russian Empire expanded, improved its administration, and continued to modernize along Western European lines. Catherine's rule re-vitalized Russia, which grew ever stronger and became recognized as one of the great powers of Europe. Her successes in complex foreign policy and her sometimes brutal reprisals in the wake of rebellion (most notably Pugachev's Rebellion) complemented her hectic private life. (1762-96)
1775 Alexander Anderson born, US, engraver/illustrator. He received no instruction, and his knowledge was acquired by watching jewelers and other workmen." He is one of the earliest American wood-engravers. He produced works for books, periodicals, and newspapers. d. 1870
1783 English churchman and hymnwriter Reginald Heber. Heber published his first hymn at 28, and among his best remembered today are: "Holy, Holy, Holy," "The Son of God Goes Forth to War" and "From Greenland's Icy Mountains."
1810 John Putnam Chapin Mayor of Chicago, Illinois (1846-1847) for the Whig Party. Chapin arrived in Chicago from New Hampshire in 1832 and became a member of the wholesale and retail merchants firm Wadsworth, Dyer & Chapin. d. 1964.
1811 Alson Sherman mayor of Chicago, Illinois (1844-1845) for the Independent Democrat Party. Sherman established the first sawmill in Chicago. In the three years before he was elected mayor, Sherman served as chief of Chicago's fire department. As mayor, he oversaw the city's purchase of its first piece of fire-fighting equipment. In 1850, he became one of the original trustees of Northwestern University. In the 1870s, when a canal being dug in Lemont, Illinois revealed Athens marble, Sherman was instrumental in developing the marble quarry there. d. 1903
1816 Louis Trezevant Wigfall born, Confederate Arm,y, American politician from Texas who served as a member of the Texas Legislature, United States Senate, and Confederate Senate. Wigfall was among a group of leading secessionists known as Fire-Eaters, advocating the preservation and expansion of an aristocratic agricultural society based on slave labor. He briefly served as a Confederate Brigadier General of the Texas Brigade at the outset of the American Civil War before taking his seat in the Confederate Senate. Wigfall's reputation for oratory and hard-drinking, along with a combative nature and high-minded sense of personal honor, made him one of the more imposing political figures of his time. died in 1874
1822 Hannibal Goodwin, rector of the Episcopal House of Prayer in Newark, New Jersey, who patented a method for making transparent, flexible roll film, was born in Taughannock, New York (d. 31 December 1900).
1834 William Rufus Terrill Brigadier General (Union volunteers), United States Army soldier and general who was killed in action at the Battle of Perryville during the American Civil War. His brother was also killed during the same war, making the Terrills one of the few sets of American brothers killed in action while commanding brigades. Ironically, they were on opposite sides in the conflict. died in 1862
1838 John Muir US, Scottish-born American naturalist (discovered glaciers in High Sierras) author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, have been read by millions. His activism helped to save the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he founded, is now one of the most important conservation organizations in the United States. One of the most well-known hiking trails in the U.S., the 211-mile John Muir Trail, was named in his honor. Other places named in his honor are Muir Woods National Monument, Muir Beach and Muir Glacier.
1856 Johnson Oatman Jr., American Methodist hymn writer, was born near Medford, New Jersey (d. 25 September 1922, Norman, Oklahoma). Wrote over 1000 hymns.
1862 Anna Belle Russell, active American Methodist laywoman and hymn writer, was born in Pine Valley, New York (d. 29 October 1954, Corning, New York).
1870 Edwin S. Porter, American film pioneer (d. 1941) most famous as a director with Thomas Edison's company
1874 Gottfried Wilhelm "Billy" Bitzer born, Roxbury, Boston, Massachusetts, (d. April 29, 1944) A pioneering cinematographer notable for his close association with D. W. Griffith, working with him on some of his most important films and contributing significantly to cinematic innovations attributed to Griffith. In 1910, he photographed Griffith's silent, short, In Old California, in the Los Angeles village of "Hollywoodland", qualifying Bitzer as, arguably, Hollywood's first Director of Photography. Bitzer, it is said, "developed camera techniques that set the standard for all future motion pictures."
Among the innovations made by Bitzer were:
the fade out to close a movie scene;
the iris shot where a circle closes to close a scene;
soft focus photography with the aid of a light diffusion screen
filming entirely under artificial lighting rather than outside
lighting, closeups and long shots to create mood
perfection of matte photography
1882 Percy Williams Bridgman, American physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1961)
1887 Joe McCarthy, American baseball manager (d. 1978)
1897 A. W. Tozer, (d 1963) one of the most popular and influential pastors to come out of the Christian and Missionary Alliance Church. Tozer was also a prolific writer, and his best- known publications include "The Pursuit of God" (1948) and "The Root of Righteousness" (1955).
Randall Thompson 'Alleluia' | OU University Chorale
1899 Randall Thompson (d 1984) American composer, particularly noted for his choral works. Thompson composed three symphonies and numerous vocal works including The Testament of Freedom, Frostiana, and The Peaceable Kingdom, inspired by Edward Hicks's painting. His most popular and recognizable choral work is his anthem, Alleluia, commissioned by Serge Koussevitzky for the opening of the Berkshire Music Center at Tanglewood. He also wrote the operas Solomon and Balkis and The Nativity According to St. Luke.
Leonard Bernstein was one of Thompson's students at Harvard. His other notable students include Samuel Adler, Leo Kraft, Juan Orrego-Salas, John Davison, Thomas Beveridge, Charles Edward Hamm, William P. Perry, Christopher King, Frederic Rzewski, and David Borden.[/blockquote]en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Randall_Thompson
1905 Edmund G "Pat" Brown born, (Governor-Democrat-CA)
1909 Rollo May, US, extensial psychologist (Love & Will)d. 1994
1911 Leonard Warren, New York NY, baritone (Metropolitan Opera 1939-60) died on stage
1911 Ivan Combe, American inventor of personal-care products, most notably Clearasil and Odor Eaters.(d. 2000)
1914 Norman Panama, American screenwriter (d. 2003)
1915 Anthony Quinn, born, Mexican-born American actor (d. 2001)
1915 Garrett Hardin, born, American ecologist, most well known for his 1968 paper, The Tragedy of the Commons. He is also known for Hardin's First Law of Ecology, which states "You cannot do only one thing", and used the familiar phrase "Nice guys finish last" to sum up the "selfish gene" concept of life and evolution.(d. 2003)
1919 Don Cornell born, (d. 2004) was an American singer of the 1940s and 1950s. ("I'll Walk Alone")
1926 Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, born
1936 James Dobson, born, American evangelist, evangelical Christian author, psychologist, and founder of Focus on the Family (FOTF). Dobson, who founded the nonprofit organization in 1977 and also chaired it until 2003, has never drawn a salary from the organization, but has used it to promote his related books and publications, yielding him royalties for sales through other venues.
As part of his role in the organization, he produced Focus on the Family, a daily radio program which according to the organization was broadcast in more than a dozen languages and on over 7,000 stations worldwide, and heard daily by more than 220 million people in 164 countries. Focus on the Family was also carried by about sixty U.S. television stations daily. Dobson's Focus on the Family show ended in February, 2010, with a new non-FOTF radio show, Family Talk with Dr. James Dobson, slated to start in the spring of 2010. He founded the Family Research Council in 1981.
He is an evangelical Christian with conservative views on politics. He has been referred to as "the nation's most influential evangelical leader" by Time, and Slate has indicated him as a successor to evangelical leaders Billy Graham, Jerry Falwell, and Pat Robertson.
1939 Helen Prejean, born, American writer, Roman Catholic religious sister, one of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Medaille, who has become a leading American advocate for the abolition of the death penalty.
1951 Michael Hartley Freedman, American mathematician at Microsoft Station Q. In 1986, he was awarded a Fields Medal for his work on the Poincaré conjecture. Freedman and Robion Kirby showed that an exotic R4manifold exists.
1948 Gary A Condit born, (Representative-Democrat-CA)
1951 Tony Danza born, Brooklyn, (Tony Banta-Taxi, Tony Micelli-Who's the Boss)
1957 Jesse Orosco Santa Barbara CA, baseball relief pitcher, holds the major league record for career pitching appearances. (New York Mets, Baltimore Orioles, Los Angeles Dodgers)
1958 Andie [Rosalie Anderson] MacDowell Gaffney SC, actress (Groundhog Day, Multiplicity, Greystoke)
1958 Michael Zarnock, American author
1959 Tim Jacobus, American illustrator
1961 Cathy Cavadini, American voice actress and singer
1961 Carey Hayes, American screenwriter and producer
1961 Chad Hayes, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
1962 Les Lancaster, American baseball player and coach
1962 Craig Robinson, American basketball player and coach
1963 Ken Caminiti, American baseball player (d. 2004)
1963 John Cameron Mitchell, American actor, director, and screenwriter
1965 Karen Foster, American model and actress
1965 Gary Grant, American basketball player
1965 Fiona Kelleghan, American academic and critic
1965 Teri Sue Wood, American illustrator
1969 Robin Meade, American journalist
1969 Jim Thornton, American television and radio announcer
1970 Jeff Anderson, American actor, director, and screenwriter
1970 Rob Riggle, American lieutenant and actor
1970 Nicole Sullivan, American actress
1971 Eric Mabius, American actor
1971 Michael Turner, American illustrator (d. 2008)
1974 Orlando Jordan, American wrestler
1977 Doseone, American rapper and producer (Deep Puddle Dynamics, Greenthink, Clouddead, Themselves, Subtle, and 13 & God)
1978 Branden Steineckert, American musician (Rancid and The Used)
1980 Jeff Keppinger, American baseball player
1980 Tony Romo, American football player
1982 Khalif Barnes, American football player
1982 Brianne Davis, American model and actress
1982 Terrence J, American television host and actor
1982 Carnell Williams, American football player
1983 Tarvaris Jackson, American football player
1984 Shayna Fox, American voice actress
1984 Michael Tinsley, American hurdler
1986 Audra Cohen, American tennis player
1986 Rodney Stuckey, American basketball player
1987 Eric Devendorf, American basketball player
1988 Jencarlos Canela, American singer-songwriter and actor
1988 Christoph Sanders, American actor
1989 Tatyana McFadden, Russian-American sprinter and skier
2002 Carl and Clarence Aguirre, Filipino-American conjoined twins
1109 Anselm of Canterbury philosopher/Archbishop of Canterbury, dies, monk, a philosopher, and a prelate of the church who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. Called the founder of scholasticism, he is famous in the West as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God. In 1720, Anselm was recognized as a saint by Pope Clement XI.
1722 Robert Beverley, Jr., died, historian of Colonial Virginia, his History and Present State of Virginia, published originally in London in 1705, is considered by many to be the most important and accurate history of early life in the Virginia colony. (b. 1673)
1815 Joseph Winston, died, U.S. Congressman from North Carolina, American pioneer, planter and Revolutionary War hero from North Carolina, and the first cousin of statesman and Virginia governor Patrick Henry. Winston moved to the Stokes County, North Carolina area in 1766. During the American Revolutionary War he was a major, leading a company of riflemen in several important battles, including the Battle of Kings Mountain and the Battle of Guilford Court House.(b. 1746)
1835 Samuel Slater (b June 9, 1768) early English-American industrialist known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution" (a phrase coined by Andrew Jackson) and the "Father of the American Factory System." In the UK he was called "Slater the Traitor" because he brought British textile technology to America, modifying it for United States use. He learned textile machinery as an apprentice to a pioneer in the British industry. Immigrating to the United States at the age of 21, he designed the first textile mills, and later went into business for himself, developing a family business with his sons. A wealthy man, he eventually owned thirteen spinning mills, and had developed tenant farms and company towns around his textile mills, such as Slatersville, Rhode Island.
1910 Samuel Langhorne Clemens pen name Mark Twain died, American author and humorist. Twain is noted for his novels Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), which has been called "the Great American Novel", and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876). en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Langhorne_Clemens
1933 Philip Wambsganss Jr., a pastor at Fort Wayne, Indiana, prominent in Missouri Synod welfare work, died (b. 16 February 1857). He was president of the Lutheran Deaconess Association from 1919 to 1933.
1946 John Maynard Keynes, English economist (b. 1883)
1948 Aldo Leopold, died, American ecologist and author, forester, and environmentalist. He was a professor at the University of Wisconsin and is best known for his book A Sand County Almanac (1949), which sold over a million copies. Influential in the development of modern environmental ethics and in the movement for wilderness conservation, his ethics of nature and wildlife preservation had a profound impact on the radical wing of the environmental movement, with his biocentric or holistic ethics regarding land. He emphasized biodiversity and ecology and was a founder of the science of wildlife management.(b. 1887)
1971 François "Papa Doc" Duvalier, died, Haitian dictator (b. 1907)
1977 Gummo [Milton] Marx US comic, fourth-born of the Marx Brothers. Born in New York City, he worked with his brothers on the vaudeville circuit, but left acting when he was drafted into the U.S. Army during World War I, years before his four brothers began their legendary film career. He was the only Marx Brother to have served in the military., dies at 84
1978 Thomas Wyatt Turner, died, American civil rights advocate and agricultural engineer (b. 1877)
1996 Jimmy "The Greek" Snyder, (Dimetrios Georgios Synodinos ) died, American bookie and sports broadcaster (b. 1919)
1999 Charles 'Buddy' Rogers, American actor and musician (b. 1904)
2000 Neal Matthews, Jr., American singer (The Jordanaires) (b. 1929)
2003 Nina Simone, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and activist (b. 1933)
2004 Mary McGrory, American journalist (b. 1918)
2012 Doris Betts, American author (b. 1932)
2012 Charles Colson, American lawyer and activist, founded Prison Fellowship (b. 1931)
2012 Charles Higham, English-American author (b. 1931)
2012 Peter Milano, American mobster (b. 1925)
2013 Kriyananda, Romanian-American spiritual leader (b. 1926)
2013 Gordon D. Gayle, American general and historian (b. 1917)
2013 Captain Steve, American race horse (b. 1997)
2014 Janet Gray Hayes, American politician, 60th Mayor of San Jose (b. 1926)
Christian Feast Day
Anselm of Canterbury
Conrad of Parzham
Holy Infant of Good Health
April 21 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Martyrs Theodore of Perge in Pamphylia, his mother Philippa, and Dioscorus, Socrates, and Dionysius (ca. 138-161) (see also: April 19)
Martyr Alexandra the Empress, wife of Diocletian, and those with her (303) (see also: April 23)
Martyrs Isaacius, Apollo, and Codratus, of Nicomedia (303)
Hieromartyrs Januarius, Bishop of Benevento, and his companions (305)
Faustus, Proclus, and Sosius, Deacons; Desiderius, Reader; and Gantiol, Eutychius, and Acutius, laymen, at Pozzuoli.
Saint Maximianus, Archbishop of Constantinople (434)
Venerable Anastasius Sinaita, Abbot of the Monastery of St. Catherine at Sinai (ca. 700) (see also: April 20)
Pre-Schism Western Saints
Saint Cyprian, Bishop of Brescia (582)
Saint Beuno, Abbot, of Clynnog Fawr, Wales (642)
Saint Maelruba of Apur Crossan (Maelrubius, Maolrubha), Ireland (722)
Saint Frodulphus (Frou), a monk at St Martin's in Autun (ca. 750)
Post-Schism Orthodox Saints
Saint Theodore the Philosopher of Kamske, martyred by Mongols (1323)
Venerable Jacob (Jakov, James) of Stromynsk (1392)
Saint Alexis, Priest of, Bortsumany, Nizhni- Novgorod (1848)
New Martyrs and Confessors
New Hieromartyr John Prigorovsky, Priest (1918)
Saint Nicholas Pisarevsky, Confessor, Priest (1933)
New Hieromartyr Alexis Protopopov, Priest (1938)
New Hieromartyr Protopresbyter Basil Martysz of Teratyn (Chelm and Podlasie, Poland) (1945)
Synaxis of the The Mozdok Icon of the Mother of God (Mozdoskaya) (1768)
Uncovering of the relics (1999) of St. Theodore, Abbot of Sanaxar Monastery (1791)
Repose of Schemamonk Nicetas of Valaam Monastery (1907)
Repose of Elder Dometian of Tula (1908)
Repose of Hieroschemamonk Antipas II of Valaam Monastery (1912)
Repose of Nun Stefanida of Kosovo (Serbia)