February 20 Feb 19, 2015 16:45:40 GMT -5
Post by Evon on Feb 19, 2015 16:45:40 GMT -5
February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar.
There are 314 days remaining until the end of the year.
Days left until elections:
U.S. Debt Clock: www.usdebtclock.org/
1472 Orkney and Shetland are pawned by Norway to Scotland in lieu of a dowry for Margaret of Denmark.
Strasbourg as seen in 1493
1529 The Mass was abolished in Strasbourg.
1544 The Fourth Diet of Speyer opened under Emperor Charles V, who appealed for support against Turks and Francis I of France (who, he claimed, had made an alliance with Turks), with the first move to be made against Francis I. The Protestants demanded a settlement of the religious questions before giving war support. The Roman Catholics were dissatisfied with some imperial proposals. Neither side was satisfied with the final compromise, which provided for maintenance of an army and a diet to be held at Worms within a year. Charles V defeated Francis I in September 1544 and so became free to move against the Protestants.
Cast of Luther's face and hands at his death, in the Market Church in Halle
1546 Martin Luther’s body arrived in Wittenberg (buried 22 February).
1547 Edward VI of England is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey.
1620 After the discovery of the New World, European powers began searching for a northwest passage which would allow them to sail to Asia. The nation which could find such a passage would control an immense wealth in trade. Under King Christian IV, Denmark sent two ships to explore the west in 1619. The first Lutheran pastor known to have visited the Americas came with them.
Little is known of Rasmus Jensen except that he was a Lutheran chaplain. Aboard the two little Danish ships, the Unicorn and the Lamprey, were 64 sailors, consisting of Danes, Norwegians and Swedes or Germans. That their chaplain should be Lutheran was fitting, since those nations had converted to Lutheranism.
That winter, the expedition became trapped in ice on Hudson Bay. Suffering cold and without adequate provisions, the men began to die of scurvy. Their captain, Jens Munk, recorded in his journal:
On the 23rd of January... the priest sat up in his berth and gave the people a sermon, which sermon was the last he delivered in this world.... On the 20th of February, in the evening, died the priest, Mr Rasmus Jensen as aforesaid, who had been ill and kept his bed a long time....
With that we reach the end of virtually all that is known of Rasmus Jensen: that he was a Lutheran priest doing his duty as long as he was able and dying on this day February 20, 1620. Jens Munk survived that bitter winter to return home with the only two crew members still living, the other 61 having perished. They reached Norway that September.
The expedition may have seemed a failure. Nonetheless, the Lutheran church had penetrated the New World, if but briefly. The first permanent Lutheran pastor in what would become the United States was Reorus Torkillus who arrived as pastor of Delaware's Swedes in 1639, twenty years later.
1636 Not many pastors rise at 3 A.M. to be sure they have sufficient time for God and their people. Samuel Rutherford was one who did. Thus it came as a great blow to him when he was compelled to leave the folk he loved.
Rutherford had published an Apology of Divine Grace against the heresy of righteousness based on human works. This work offended the government. On this day, February 20, 1636, Archbishop Laud, who controlled the established churches of Britain, exiled Rutherford to Aberdeen. He forbade him to preach anywhere in Britain.
It might seem Rutherford could not be blamed if he slipped into depression. The years had not been kind to him. In 1630, after barely five years of marriage, his wife died following a painful illness of thirteen months. Their two children also died, and Samuel himself suffered a debilitating fever for three months. Now he was in exile, excluded from the work he cherished most.
But rather than become depressed, he wrote encouraging letters to his friends and his church home. These are full of wise and pithy sayings: "Duties are ours, and events are the Lord's." Or, "It is not for us to set an hourglass to the Creator of time."
The hundreds of letters he wrote in exile became a classic. Full of encouragement and loving devotion to Christ, they showed that Rutherford had an intimate communion with the Lord and was not afraid to talk about it. He always wrote about Christ and the wondrous glory of His Person. Charles Haddon Spurgeon later said, "When we are dead and gone, let the world know that Spurgeon held Rutherford's letters to be the nearest thing to inspiration which can be found in all the writings of mere man."
In 1638 Rutherford was restored to his church. His many sufferings gave him even greater sympathy for the suffering in his flock.
During the 1640s, Rutherford represented the church of Scotland in the Westminster Assembly in London. He helped author the Shorter Catechism, with its famous beginning, "What is the chief end of man?"
1685 René-Robert Cavelier establishes Fort St. Louis at Matagorda Bay thus forming the basis for France's claim to Texas.
1743 Colonial missionary to the American Indians David Brainerd wrote in his journal: 'Selfish religion loves Christ for his benefits, but not for himself.'
1792 The Postal Service Act, establishing the United States Post Office Department, is signed by United States President George Washington. Washington signed legislation renewing the United States Post Office as a cabinet department led by the postmaster general, guaranteeing inexpensive delivery of all newspapers, stipulating the right to privacy and granting Congress the ability to expand postal service to new areas of the nation.
William Goddard, a Patriot printer frustrated that the royal postal service was unable to reliably deliver his Pennsylvania Chronicle to its readers or deliver critical news for the paper to Goddard, laid out a plan for the Constitutional Post before the Continental Congress on October 5, 1774. Congress waited to act on the plan until after the Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. Benjamin Franklin promoted Goddard's plan and served as the first postmaster general under the Continental Congress beginning on July 26, 1775, nearly one year before the Congress declared independence from the British Crown. Franklin's son-in-law, Richard Bache, took over the position on November 7, 1776, when Franklin became an American emissary to France.
Franklin had already made a significant contribution to the postal service in the colonies while serving as the postmaster of Philadelphia from 1737 and as joint postmaster general of the colonies from 1753 to 1774, when he was fired for opening and publishing Massachusetts Royal Governor Thomas Hutchinson's correspondence. While postmaster, Franklin streamlined postal delivery with properly surveyed and marked routes from Maine to Florida (the origins of Route 1), instituted overnight postal travel between the critical cities of New York and Philadelphia and created a standardized rate chart based upon weight and distance.
Samuel Osgood held the postmaster general's position in New York City from 1789, when the U.S. Constitution came into effect, until the government moved to Philadelphia in 1791. Timothy Pickering took over and, about a year later, the Postal Service Act gave his post greater legislative legitimacy and more effective organization. Pickering continued in the position until 1795, when he briefly served as secretary of war, before becoming the third U.S. secretary of state. The postmaster general's position was considered a plum patronage post for political allies of the president until the Postal Service was transformed into a corporation run by a board of governors in 1971.
1798 Louis Alexandre Berthier removes Pope Pius VI from power. As pope, he condemned the French Revolution and he was expelled from the Papal States by French troops from 1798 until his death one year later in Valence. His reign is among the longest in papal history, with the fourth-longest reign.
1809 Supreme Court rules federal government power greater than any state. The Court achieved its current influence in the life of the United States during the tenure of the Chief Justice John Marshall. He was appointed to the office by John Adams in the final days of Adams' presidency. As a political opponent of the Jeffersonian Republicans, Marshall delivered a number of opinions that they found uncongenial, strengthening the Judicial branch at the expense of the Executive branch and asserting the Court's monopoly on the interpretation of the Constitution. Foremost among these cases was Marbury v. Madison. On February 20, 1809 a decision by the Supreme Court stated that the power of the federal government was greater than any individual state.
1810 Andreas Hofer, Tirolean patriot and leader of rebellion against Napoleon's forces, is executed.
1816 Rossini's opera The Barber of Seville premieres at the Teatro Argentina in Rome. .The Barber of Seville (Il barbiere di Siviglia) is a comic opera in two acts by Gioacchino Rossini with a libretto (based on the comedy by Pierre Beaumarchais) by Cesare Sterbini. The première (under the title Almaviva, or the Useless Precaution) took place on 20 February 1816, at the Teatro Argentina, Rome.
1823 Explorer James Weddell's expedition to Antarctica reaches latitude 74°15' S and longitude 34°16'45" W: the southernmost position any ship had reached before, a record that will hold for more than 80 years.
Drawing of the remains of the Cathedral in Concepción
1835 Concepción, Chile is destroyed by an earthquake.
1846 Polish insurgents lead an uprising in Kraków to incite a fight for national independence.
Battle of Olustee by Kurz and Allison
1864 American Civil War: Battle of Olustee: The largest battle fought in Florida during the war. Rebels defeat Yankees. a Confederate force under General Joseph Finegan decisively defeated an army commanded by General Truman Seymour. The victory kept the Confederates in control of Florida's interior for the rest of the war.
Olustee was the climax to a Union invasion of Florida a few weeks before. General Quincy Gilmore, commander of the Union's Department of the South, dispatched Seymour to Jacksonville on February 7. Seymour's troops secured the town and began to send cavalry raiders inland to Lake City and Gainesville. Just behind the troops came John Hay, private secretary to President Abraham Lincoln. Hay began issuing loyalty oaths to residents in an effort to form a new, Republican state government in time to send delegates to the 1864 party convention. Under the president's plan of reconstruction, a new state government could be formed when 10 percent of the state's prewar voting population had taken a loyalty oath.
Seymour began moving towards Lake City, west of Jacksonville, to destroy a railroad bridge and secure northern Florida. Finegan possessed only 500 men at Lake City, but reinforcements were arriving. By the time the two sides began to skirmish near the Olustee railroad station, each side had about 5,000 troops. Throughout the day on February 20, a pitched battle raged. The Confederates were close to breaking the Yankee lines when they ran low on ammunition. When more cartridges arrived, the attack continued. By late afternoon, Seymour realized the fight was lost and he began to retreat.
The Yankees suffered around 1,800 killed, wounded, or captured, while the Confederates lost about 900 men. The battle did disrupt the flow of supplies from Florida to other Confederate armies, but it failed to bring about a new state government. Most of Florida remained in Confederate hands until the end of the war.
1865 End of the Uruguayan War, with a peace agreement between President Tomás Villalba and rebel leader Venancio Flores, setting the scene for the destructive War of the Triple Alliance.
1872 In New York City the Metropolitan Museum of Art opens.
1873 The University of California opens its first medical school in San Francisco, California.
1877 Tchaikovsky's ballet Swan Lake receives its première performance at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow.
1878 Following the death of Pius IX, Italian cardinal Gioacchino Pecci, 67, was elected Pope Leo XIII. His papacy, possibly the century's most productive, was best known for his teaching encyclicals and for establishing in 1902 the Pontifical Biblical Commission.
1901 The legislature of Hawaii Territory convenes for the first time.
1901 William Mahler (1870–1966), the first LCMS missionary to Brazil, left for Brazil.
1909 Publication of the Futurist Manifesto in the French journal Le Figaro.
1913 King O'Malley drives in the first survey peg to mark commencement of work on the construction of Canberra.
1915 Panamá-Pacific International Exposition opens in San Francisco. Open for just 257 days in 1915, San Francisco's Panama Pacific International Exposition saw more than 18,000,000 visitors pass the turnstiles to marvel at the 635 acre site, including over 400,000 people on closing day (greater than the then population of the city). Built on what is today the Marina District of San Francisco, the PPIE cost over $17,000,000 ($280,000,000 today) to construct and operate, yet still managed to generate a considerable profit, a rarity for world's fairs.
1921 The Young Communist League of Czechoslovakia is founded.
1931 The Congress of the United States approves the construction of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge by the state of California.
1933 The Congress of the United States proposes the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution that will end Prohibition in the United States.
1933 Adolf Hitler secretly meets with German industrialists to arrange for financing of the Nazi Party's upcoming election campaign.
1935 Caroline Mikkelsen becomes the first woman to set foot in Antarctica.
1942 Lieutenant Edward O'Hare becomes America's first World War II flying ace.
1943 American movie studio executives agree to allow the Office of War Information to censor movies.
1943 The Parícutin volcano begins to form in Parícutin, Mexico.
1943 The Saturday Evening Post publishes the first of Norman Rockwell's Four Freedoms in support of United States President Franklin Roosevelt's 1941 State of the Union address theme of Four Freedoms.
1944 World War II: The "Big Week" began with American bomber raids on German aircraft manufacturing centers.
1944 World War II: The United States takes Eniwetok Island.
The Psalms Scroll (11Q5), one of the 972 texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls, with a partial Hebrew transcription.
1948 John C. Trever asks to Photograph Dead Sea Scrolls. In 1947 a Bedouin stumbled across scrolls in pots in a cave. Thinking they might be of some value, he placed them with Khalil Iskander, an antique dealer in Jerusalem. Iskander supposed they might be Syrian; valuable, but not immensely so. He consulted with a friend who agreed. The friend spoke to Orthodox Archbishop Athanasius Yeshua Samuel. Almost at once Samuel recognized the scrolls as sections of the Old Testament. Unable to suppress his excitement, he frantically made arrangements to purchase them.
Samuel showed the parchments to various experts. Some of his own church's experts believed them worthless. So did most of those who viewed them, although Ibrahim Gabriel Sowmy, an expert in Aramaic culture and his brother Father Boutros Sowmy considered them to be extremely old and therefore valuable. Ibrahim was probably the first to suggest the scrolls were from Qumran. Months passed in which Samuel's efforts to learn the value of the scrolls were thwarted. He persisted, however, and contacted the American University of Beirut. The man he connected with was John Trever, not only a Bible student, but trained in photographing old scrolls.
John was intrigued. Bring the manuscripts around, he said. Father Boutros (Peter) Sowmy conveyed them to him on February 19, 1948. Trever, the first American to see the scrolls, was intrigued. To him they looked valuable. But he did not know for sure.
He sought permission from Samuel to photograph the scrolls. He could not sleep as he waited. Next day, on February 20th, 1948, Samuel's permission was forthcoming. The Orthodox archbishop was as keen as Trever to find out what the scrolls were worth.
Trever began photographing at once. By Tuesday the pictures were on their way to the famed paleographer William F. Albright. On March 14 the answer came back.
Albright congratulated the men on their find. The scroll was older than the Nash papyrus he assured them, dating from probably 100 B.C. "What an absolutely incredible find!" he wrote.
An incredible find it was! The whole world soon was electrified with the announcement of the Dead Sea scrolls. Their importance can hardly be over rated. Not only have they confirmed the accuracy of the Old Testament, but they have shed light on the years just before Christ's coming. We now know that much of Christ's message and many of his phrases were "in the air" before he was born.
Trever and his colleagues studied the scrolls the rest of that summer. Although a local scholar named E. L. Sukenik* recognized the value of manuscripts from the caves a year earlier, and even risked his life trying to get pieces, Trever and his colleagues were the first to provide useful information to the world.
*According to a family member, who communicated details to Christian History Institute.
1950 American missionary and martyr Jim Elliot wrote in his journal: 'One may know God's work for his soul without understanding it all... Let the heart be warm, at all costs to the head, in the getting of Christianity.'
1952 Emmett Ashford becomes the first African-American umpire in organized baseball by being authorized to be a substitute umpire in the Southwestern International League.
1956 The United States Merchant Marine Academy becomes a permanent Service Academy.
1959 The Avro Arrow program to design and manufacture supersonic jet fighters in Canada is cancelled by the Diefenbaker government amid much political debate.
1962 Mercury program: While aboard Friendship 7, John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the earth, making three orbits in four hours, 55 minutes.
1965 Ranger 8 crashes into the Moon after a successful mission of photographing possible landing sites for the Apollo program astronauts.
1971 The United States Emergency Broadcast System is accidentally activated in an erroneous national alert.
1974 Atlanta Constitution editor is kidnapped. Reg Murphy, an editor of The Atlanta Constitution, is kidnapped after being lured from his home near the city. William Williams told the newspaperman that he had 300,000 gallons of heating oil to donate to the poor. The 33-year-old Williams abducted Murphy, who was well known for his anti-Vietnam War stance, at gunpoint.
For the next 49 hours, Williams drove Murphy around the city, stopping to phone in ransom demands to the newspaper. Williams claimed to represent a right-wing militia group and insisted on receiving $700,000. Finally, managing editor G. James Minter delivered the money to Williams and Murphy was released.
Within hours, Williams and his wife Betty were caught in their home outside the city with the ransom money. At the subsequent trial, Williams attempted a plea of mental instability and told the jury about being abused as a child. There was also evidence that he had been using amphetamines, but the motive for the crime remains a mystery. Williams was sentenced to 40 years for kidnapping and extortion, and his wife received three years' probation for her concealment of the crime. In 1975, Williams was granted a new trial, found guilty again, and sentenced to 50 years in federal prison. He served nine years in federal prison before being paroled.
1976 SEATO disbands. After operating for 22 years, the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization concludes its final military exercise and quietly shuts down. SEATO had been one of the bulwarks of America's Cold War policies in Asia, but the Vietnam War did much to destroy its cohesiveness and question its effectiveness.
SEATO was formed in 1954 during a meeting in Manila called by U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles. Eight nations—the United States, France, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, and Pakistan--joined together in the regional defense organization to "stem the tide of communism in Asia." At the time, that "tide" was most threatening in Southeast Asia, particularly in the former-French colony of Vietnam. There, a revolution led by the communist Ho Chi Minh resulted, in 1954, in an agreement for the withdrawal of French forces, the temporary division of Vietnam (with Ho's forces in control in the north), and nationwide elections two years hence to reunify the nation and select a president. The United States, believing that Ho was merely a pawn for international communism, reacted by establishing SEATO and including "South Vietnam" (which was not technically an independent nation) under its umbrella of protection.
When the United States became fully committed to the Vietnam War in 1965, it called upon its SEATO allies for assistance. Only Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, and Thailand responded with a few thousand troops and other aid. This made clear that the driving force behind SEATO was the United States. Despite their anticommunist rhetoric, Great Britain and France wanted no part of another Asian war and Pakistan simply wanted the military assistance that membership in SEATO granted. As the war in Vietnam became increasingly frustrating and unpopular, SEATO began to crack. By the time the conflict in Vietnam ended in 1975—with South Vietnam's fall to the communist North Vietnamese—only five nations were left to carry out the final SEATO military exercise in February 1976. A mere 188 troops from the United States, Great Britain, the Philippines, Thailand, and New Zealand showed up in the Philippines to conduct what was basically a civic action operation. Roads, schools, and a dam were built by the troops in the Philippine countryside. Afterwards, while "Auld Lang Syne" was played, closing ceremonies marked the end of SEATO.
1978 The last Order of Victory is bestowed upon Leonid Brezhnev.
1986 The Soviet Union launches its Mir spacecraft. Remaining in orbit for 15 years, it is occupied for ten of those years.
1987 Unabomber: In Salt Lake City, a bomb explodes in a computer store.
1988 The Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast votes to secede from Azerbaijan and join Armenia, triggering the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
1989 An IRA bomb destroys a section of a British Army barracks in Ternhill, England.
1991 A gigantic statue of Albania's long-time leader, Enver Hoxha, is brought down in the Albanian capital Tirana, by mobs of angry protesters.
1998 American figure skater Tara Lipinski becomes the youngest gold-medalist at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.
Lipinski donned her first pair of skates at age six. In 1994, at age 12, she won a gold medal at the U.S. Olympic Festival, a junior-level competition. In 1997, Lipinski, then 14, took first place at both the national and world figure skating championships, beating out her American rival and perennial fan favorite, Michelle Kwan. Lipinski was the youngest person ever to take home either title. At the 1998 Winter Games in Nagano, Lipinski and teammate Michelle Kwan were both considered favorites for the gold medal. Earlier that season, the diminutive Lipinski, known for her energetic jumps, had been defeated twice in competition by Kwan, who was considered the more artistic skater of the two. Both Kwan and Lipinski turned in strong performances; however, Lipinski's program was considered more technically difficult and she was awarded the gold medal. Kwan took home the silver medal and China's Chen Lu won the bronze. Lipinski, then 15, was the youngest person in figure skating history to capture Olympic gold. (At the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway, 16-year-old Oksana Baiul from Ukraine won the gold in women's figure skating.)
In April 1998, Lipinski announced she was turning professional. She went on to perform in skating shows such as "Stars on Ice" and also pursued an acting career. In 2006, she was inducted into the U.S. Figure Skating Hall of Fame.
Makeshift memorial at the site of the Station night club
2003 During a Great White concert in West Warwick, Rhode Island, a pyrotechnics display sets the Station nightclub ablaze, killing 100 and injuring over 200 others.
A fire at a rock concert in a West Warwick, Rhode Island, nightclub kills 100 people and seriously injures almost 200 more on this day in 2003. It was the deadliest such fire in the United States since 165 people were killed at the Beverly Hill Supper Club in Southgate, Kentucky, in 1977.
On the night of February 20, a local news crew was on hand at the Station nightclub to report on the issue of nightclub safety. (Four days earlier, 21 people had been killed during a stampede at a club in Chicago.) Helping out with the report was Jeffrey Derderian, who co-owned the Station with his brother Michael. That night, they were expecting a full house to see the heavy-metal band Great White.
Just after 11 p.m., near the beginning of the show, Daniel Biechele, Great White's tour manager, set off some pyrotechnics behind the performers, which set fire to the soundproofing foam on the ceiling. For a short time, no one realized the severity of the situation. As the fire spread rapidly, though, panic ensued. Most of the 400 people at the concert attempted to leave the club through the front entrance.
As black smoke filled the club's interior, the desperate rush of people to the front entrance caused a pile-up, trapping people where they stood. Though firefighters, who responded within minutes, worked hard to pull people to safety through the front door, 96 people died in the smoke and flames. Most of the bodies were found near the front entrance. Among the dead was Great White's guitarist, Ty Longley. Another 35 people were left in critical condition, including four who would later die from their injuries.
In the aftermath of the tragedy, Daniel Biechele was indicted for setting off the pyrotechnics without a permit. He pled guilty to 100 counts of involuntary manslaughter and received a sentence of four years in prison with 11 more years suspended. Michael Derderian pled guilty for his role in maintaining the Station and received a 15-year sentence (four years to serve, and 11 years suspended). His brother Jeffrey got a 10-year suspended sentence.
2005 Spain becomes the first country to vote in a referendum on ratification of the proposed Constitution of the European Union, passing it by a substantial margin, but on a low turnout.
2006 In South Korea the United Liberal Democrats, the three top political parties was merged into Grand National Party.
2009 Two Tamil Tigers aircraft packed with C4 explosives en route to the national airforce headquarters are shot down by the Sri Lankan military before reaching their target, in a kamikaze style attack.
2010 In Madeira Island, Portugal, heavy rain causes floods and mudslides, resulting in at least 43 deaths, in the worst disaster in the history of the archipelago.
2013 The smallest extrasolar planet, Kepler-37b is discovered.
2014 Dozens of Euromaidan anti-government protesters died in in Ukraine's capital Kiev, many reportedly killed by snipers.
1469 Tomasso de Vio Cajetan, the most learned of the Roman Catholic dignitaries sent to silence Martin Luther in the early years of the Protestant Reformation, at Gaeta, Italy (hence Gaetano, or Cajetan) (d. 9 August 1534).
1726 William Prescott, American colonel (d. 1795)
1805 Angelina Grimke reformer/abolitionist/politician/lawyer
1809 Henry Walton Wessells Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1889
1820 Mahlon Dickerson Manson Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1895
1827 Edward Stuyvesant Bragg Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1912
1838 James Barbour Terrill Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1864
1844 Joshua Slocum, Canadian sailor and adventurer (d. 1909)
1848 E. H. Harriman, American businessman (d. 1909)
1882 Elie Nadelman, Polish-born American sculptor (d. 1946)
1893 Russel Crouse, American playwright (d. 1966)
1893 Elizabeth Holloway Marston, American psychologist (d. 1993)
1898 Jimmy Yancey, African American boogie-woogie pianist, composer, and lyricist. One reviewer noted him as "one of the pioneers of this raucous, rapid-fire, eight-to-the-bar piano style".(d. 1951)
1899 Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney, American businessman (d. 1992)
1901 René Dubos, French-American biologist and author (d. 1982)
1901 Louis Kahn, American architect, designed the Salk Institute, the Kimbell Art Museum and the Bangladesh Parliament Building (d. 1974)
1902 Ansel Adams, American photographer (d. 1984)
1904 Alexei Kosygin, Russian politician, 8th Premier of the Soviet Union (d. 1980)
1906 Gale Gordon, American actor (d. 1995)
1907 Malcolm Atterbury, American actor (d. 1992)
1908 Ruby Elzy, American soprano (d. 1943)
1913 Tommy Henrich, American baseball player (d. 2009)
1914 John Charles Daly, South African–American journalist and game show host (d. 1991)
1916 Jean Erdman, American dancer and choreographer
1918 Leonore Annenberg, American businesswoman and diplomat (d. 2009)
1920 Karl Albrecht, German businessman, co-founded Aldi (d. 2014)
1921 Buddy Rogers, American wrestler (d. 1992)
1923 Victor G. Atiyeh, American politician, 32nd Governor of Oregon (d. 2014)
1924 Gloria Vanderbilt, American actress and fashion designer
1925 Robert Altman, American director and screenwriter (d. 2006)
1926 Matthew Bucksbaum, American businessman and philanthropist, co-founded General Growth Properties (d. 2013)
1926 Richard Matheson, American author and screenwriter (d. 2013)
1927 Roy Cohn, American lawyer (d. 1986)
1927 Sidney Poitier, American actor, director, and diplomat
1928 Roy Face, American baseball player
1928 Jean Kennedy Smith, American diplomat, 25th United States Ambassador to Ireland
1929 Amanda Blake, American actress (d. 1989)
1934 Bobby Unser, American race car driver
1935 Ellen Gilchrist, American author and poet
1936 Marj Dusay, American actress
1936 Larry Hovis, American actor and singer (d. 2003)
1937 David Ackles, American singer-songwriter and actor (d. 1999)
1937 Roger Penske, American race car driver
1937 Nancy Wilson, American singer and actress
1938 Richard Beymer, American actor
1938 Wiley W. Hilburn, American journalist and academic (d. 2014)
1941 Buffy Sainte-Marie, Canadian-American singer-songwriter and producer
1942 Mitch McConnell, American politician
1943 Moshe Cotel, American pianist and composer (d. 2008)
1945 Andrew Bergman, American director and screenwriter
1945 Alan Hull, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (Lindisfarne) (d. 1995)
1945 Brion James, American actor (d. 1999)
1945 Henry Polic II, American actor (d. 2013)
1946 Sandy Duncan, American actress, singer, and dancer
1946 J. Geils, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (The J. Geils Band)
1947 Peter Strauss, American actor and producer
1948 Jennifer O'Neill, Brazilian-American actress
1949 Mab Segrest, American author and activist
1949 Ivana Trump, Czech-American skier and model
1950 Walter Becker, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Steely Dan)
1951 Edward Albert, American actor (d. 2006)
1951 Randy California, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Spirit) (d. 1997)
1951 Sean Wilentz, American historian and author
1953 Poison Ivy, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (The Cramps)
1954 Jon Brant, American bass player (Cheap Trick)
1954 Patty Hearst, American actress
1956 Hugh Hewitt, American radio talk show host with the Salem Radio Network, lawyer, academic, and author. A conservative, a Presbyterian and Catholic, he comments on society, politics, and what he regards as media bias in the United States. Hewitt is also a law professor at Chapman University School of Law.
1959 Scott Brayton, American race car driver (d. 1996)
1959 Bill Gullickson, American baseball player
1960 Joel Hodgson, American comedian and actor
1960 Wendee Lee, American voice actress
1962 Kenn Nesbitt, American author
1962 Dwayne McDuffie, American author, screenwriter, and producer, co-founded Milestone Media (d. 2011)
1963 Charles Barkley, American basketball player and sportscaster
1963 Jon Lynn Christensen, American politician
1964 Willie Garson, American actor
1964 Rodney Rowland, American actor
1964 French Stewart, American actor
1965 Ron Eldard, American actor
1966 Cindy Crawford, American model and actress
1967 Kurt Cobain, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Nirvana and Fecal Matter) (d. 1994)
1967 David Herman, American comedian and actor
1967 Andrew Shue, American actor
1967 Kath Soucie, American actress
1967 Lili Taylor, American actress
1967 Tom Waddle, American football player
1969 Tommy Vardell, American football player
1971 Calpernia Addams, American actress, author, and activist
1971 Shawn McKenzie, American programmer, created AutoTheme
1975 Liván Hernández, Cuban baseball player
1975 Brian Littrell, American singer-songwriter and actor (Backstreet Boys)
1977 Stephon Marbury, American basketball player
1977 T. J. Slaughter, American football player
1978 Lauren Ambrose, American actress
1978 Jay Hernandez, American actor
1981 Adrian Lamo, American hacker
1981 Fred Jackson, American football player
1981 Chris Thile, American singer-songwriter and mandolin player (Nickel Creek and Punch Brothers)
1982 Jason Hirsh, American baseball player
1983 Jose Morales, Puerto Rican baseball player
1983 Justin Verlander, American baseball player
1984 Brian McCann, American baseball player
1984 Ramzee Robinson, American football player
1985 Ryan Sweeney, American baseball player
1987 Miles Teller, American actor and musician
1988 Rihanna, Barbadian-American singer-songwriter and actress
1988 Jiah Khan, American-Indian actress and singer (d. 2013)
1988 Kealoha Pilares, American football player
1989 Jack Falahee, American actor
1154 Wulfric of Haselbury, English saint (b. 1080)
1431 Pope Martin V (b. 1368)
1524 Tecun Uman, Mayan ruler (b. 1500)
1620 Rasmus Jensen, the first Lutheran pastor in North America, at Port Churchill, Hudson Bay, Canada.
1790 Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1741)
1806 Lachlan McIntosh, Scottish-American general and politician (b. 1725)
1862 William Wallace Lincoln, American son of Abraham Lincoln (b. 1850)
1893 P. G. T. Beauregard, American general (b. 1818)
1895 Frederick Douglass, American author and abolitionist, the first African-American to hold high political office, died (b. 17 February 1818).
1900 Washakie (b c 1798/1810) prominent leader of the Shoshone people during the mid-19th century. He was first mentioned in 1840 in the written record of the American fur trapper, Osborne Russell. In 1851, at the urging of trapper Jim Bridger, Washakie led a band of Shoshones to the council meetings of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851). Essentially from that time until his death, he was considered the head of the Eastern Shoshones by the representatives of the United States government
1905 Jeremiah W. Farnham, American captain (b. 1829)
1911 Quanah Parker (Comanche kwana, "smell, odor") (b c. 1845 or 1852) Comanche war leader of the Quahadi ("Antelope") band of the Comanche people. He was born into the Nokoni ("Wanderers") band, the son of Comanche chief Peta Nocona and Cynthia Ann Parker, an Anglo-American, who had been kidnapped as a child and assimilated into the tribe. Following the apprehension of several Kiowa chiefs in 1871, Quanah emerged as a dominant figure in the Red River War, clashing repeatedly with Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie. With whites deliberately hunting American bison, the Comanche's primary livelihood, into extinction, Quanah finally surrendered and peaceably led the Quahadi to the reservation at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.
1920 Robert Peary, American explorer (b. 1856)
1920 Jacinta Marto, Portuguese saint (b. 1910)
1960 Sir Charles Leonard Woolley, 80, a British archaeologist who spent more than 40 years in the field. Woolley is remembered for having excavated Ur of the Chaldees, and for discovering the ancient Sumerian civilization.
1961 Percy Grainger, Australian-American pianist and composer (b. 1882)
1966 Chester W. Nimitz, American admiral (b. 1885)
1970 Sophie Treadwell, American playwright and journalist (b. 1885)
1972 Maria Goeppert-Mayer, German-American physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1906)
1972 Walter Winchell, American journalist (b. 1897)
1976 Kathryn Kuhlman, 69, popular American radio and TV evangelist. A member of the American Baptist Convention, Kuhlman's preaching emphasized the healing power of the Holy Spirit. (b. 1907)
1981 Nicolas de Gunzburg, French-American banker and publisher (b. 1904)
1985 Clarence Nash, American voice actor (b. 1904)
1987 Wayne Boring, American illustrator (b. 1905)
1992 John Kneubuhl, American-Samoan screenwriter, playwright and historian (b. 1920)
1992 Dick York, American actor (b. 1928)
1993 Ernest L. Massad, American general (b. 1908)
1996 Solomon Asch, American psychologist (b. 1907)
1997 Zachary Breaux, American guitarist (b. 1960)
1999 Gene Siskel, American journalist and critic (b. 1946)
2001 Rosemary DeCamp, American actress (b. 1910)
2001 Donella Meadows, American environmentalist, author, and academic (b. 1941)
2003 Orville Freeman, American politician, 29th Governor of Minnesota (b. 1918)
2003 Ty Longley, American singer and guitarist (Great White and Samantha 7) (b. 1971)
2005 Pam Bricker, American singer (b. 1954)
2005 Sandra Dee, American actress (b. 1944)
2005 John Raitt, American actor and singer (b. 1917)
2005 Hunter S. Thompson, American journalist and author (b. 1937)
2006 Curt Gowdy, American sportscaster (b. 1919)
2007 F. Albert Cotton, American chemist (b. 1930)
2009 Larry H. Miller, American businessman (b. 1944)
2010 Alexander Haig, American general and politician, 59th United States Secretary of State (b. 1924)
2012 Katie Hall, American politician (b. 1938)
2012 Vitaly Vorotnikov, Russian politician, 27th Prime Minister of Russia (b. 1926)
2012 Sullivan Walker, Trinidadian-American actor (b. 1946)
2013 David Stewart McKay, Chief Scientist for astrobiology at the Johnson Space Center. During the Apollo program, McKay trained the first men to walk on the Moon in geology. McKay was the first author of a scientific paper postulating past life on Mars on the basis of evidence in Martian meteorite ALH 84001, which had been found in Antarctica. This paper has become one of the most heavily cited papers in planetary science. The NASA Astrobiology Institute was founded partially as a result of community interest in this paper and related topics. He was a native of Titusville, Pennsylvania(b. 1936)
2013 Ozzie Sweet, American photographer (b. 1918)
2014 Walter D. Ehlers, American lieutenant, Medal of Honor recipient for his actions in World War II. (b 1921)
2014 Roger Hill, American actor (b. 1948)
2014 Peter A. Rona, American oceanographer. He was also a professor of Earth and planetary sciences at Rutgers University.(b. 1934)
2014 Garrick Utley, American television journalist. He established his career reporting about the Vietnam War and has the distinction of being the first full-time television correspondent covering the war on-site. (b 1939)
Holidays and observances
Christian feast day:
Eucherius of Orleans
Eleutherius of Tournai
Wulfric of Haselbury
Bls. Francisco Marto and Jacinta Marto
Frederick Douglass (Episcopal Church (USA))
February 20 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Hieromartyr Eleutherius of Byzantium, Bishop in Byzantium (136)
Martyrs Didymos, Nemesios and Potamios, in Cyprus.
Saint Eutropius, martyr (308)
Hieromartyr Sadoc of Persia (Sadoth), Bishop of Persia, and 128 Martyrs with him (330)
Saint Anianus (Aninas).
Saint Bessarion the Great, Wonderworker of Egypt (466) (see also: June 6)
Saint Agatho of Rome, Pope of Rome (682)
Saint Mildrith, Anglo-Saxon abbess of the Abbey at Minster-in-Thanet, Kent (c. 700) (see also: July 13)
Saint Leo of Catania (Leo the Wonderworker), Bishop of Catania in Sicily (785)
Veneranle Cindeus of Pisidia (Kindeos), Bishop of Pisidia.
Venerable Plotinus, monk.
Pre-Schism Western saint
Saint Bolcan (Olcan), baptised by St Patrick, Bolcan later became Bishop of Derkan in Ireland (c. 480)
Saint Valerius (Valier), first Bishop of Couserans in France (5th century?)
Saint Falco of Maastricht, Bishop of Maastricht in the Netherlands (512)
Saint Eleutherius of Tournai, Bishop of Tournai (531)
Saint Eucherius of Orléans, Bishop of Orleans (c. 740)
Saint Colgan, called 'the Wise' and 'the Chief Scribe of the Irish' , he was Abbot of Clonmacnoise in Offaly in Ireland (c. 796)
Post-Schism Orthodox saints
Saint Yaroslav the Wise, son of the Varangian (Viking) Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (1054)
Saint Agatho, Wonderworker of the Kiev Caves Monastery (13th-14th centuries)
Martyrdom of St. Cornelius, abbot of the Pskov-Caves Monastery, by beheading, and his disciple St. Bassian of Murom (1570)
Hieromartyr Abbot Macarius and 34 monks and novices of Valaam Monastery, martyred by the Lutherans (1578):
and Novices Varlaam,
New martyrs and confessors
New Hieromartyr Nicholas Rozov, Priest (1938)