Post by Evon on Feb 18, 2015 23:04:38 GMT -5
February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar.
There are 315 days remaining until the end of the year
Days left until elections:
U.S. Debt Clock: www.usdebtclock.org/
197 Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum, the bloodiest battle between Roman armies.
356 Emperor Constantius II issues a decree closing all pagan temples in the Roman Empire.
Late 14th-early 15th century icon illustrating the "Triumph of Orthodoxy" under the Byzantine empress Theodora over iconoclasm in 843. (National Icon Collection 18, British Museum).
843 Empress Theodora reinstated icons once and for all in the Eastern churches, effectively ending the iconoclastic controversy.
1377 John Wycliffe (ca. 1320–1384) stood trial in London’s Saint Paul’s Cathedral for his criticism of the church.
1546 Justus Jonas (1493–1555) delivered the funeral oration for Martin Luther at Eisleben.
1568 Myles Coverdale (b. ca. 1488), translator and publisher of the first complete Bible to be printed in English (1535), was buried.
Ash falling on the city of Arequipa in 1600
1600 The Peruvian stratovolcano Huaynaputina explodes in the most violent eruption in the recorded history of South America. On 19 February 1600, it exploded catastrophically (Volcanic Explosivity Index--or VEI--6), in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historic times. The eruption continued with a series of events into March. An account of the event was included in Fray Antonio Vázquez de Espinosa's Compendio y Descripción de las Indias, which was translated into English as Compendium and description of the West Indies in 1942.
The Battle of Guararapes by Victor Meirelles
1649 The Second Battle of Guararapes takes place, effectively ending Dutch colonization efforts in Brazil.
1776 The first baptism of an Eskimo by a Lutheran pastor took place in Labrador.
1777 Congress overlooks Benedict Arnold for promotion. On this day in 1777, the Continental Congress votes to promote Thomas Mifflin; Arthur St. Clair; William Alexander, Lord Stirling; Adam Stephen; and Benjamin Lincoln to the rank of major general. Although the promotions were intended in part to balance the number of generals from each state, Brigadier General Benedict Arnold felt slighted that five junior officers received promotions ahead of him and, in response, threatened to resign from the Patriot army.
In a letter dated April 3, 1777, General George Washington wrote to Arnold from his headquarters in Morristown, New Jersey, and confessed that he was surprised, when I did not see your name in the list of Major Generals. Thinking that the omission of Arnold's name was an error, Washington discouraged the disappointed Arnold from taking any hasty Step.
To Arnold's dismay, he soon learned that his commander in chief was wrong, and he submitted his resignation to the Congress in July 1777, but withdrew it at Washington's urging. Despite having the support of George Washington, Arnold continued to feel unjustly overlooked by his superiors. Finally, in 1780, Arnold betrayed his country by offering to hand over the Patriot-held fort at West Point, New York, to the British. With West Point in their control, the British would have controlled the critical Hudson River Valley and separated New England from the rest of the colonies. His wife, Margaret, was a Loyalist and would not have objected to his plans. However, his plot was foiled, and Arnold, the hero of Ticonderoga and Saratoga, became the most famous traitor in American history. He continued to fight on the side of the British in the Revolution and, after the war, returned to Britain, where he died destitute in London in 1801.
1803 Congress accepts Ohio's constitution, statehood not ratified until 1953. Largely due to the perception that territorial governor Arthur St. Clair had ruled heavy-handedly, the constitution provided for a "weak" governor and judiciary, and vested virtually all power in a bicameral legislature, known as the General Assembly. Congress simply recognized the existence of the "state of Ohio" rather than passing a separate resolution declaring Ohio a state as it had done and would do with other new states. On February 19, 1803, President Jefferson signed the bill into law. It provided that Ohio "had become one of the United States of America," and that Federal law "shall have the same force and effect within the said State of Ohio, as elsewhere within the United States."
1807 Former Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr is arrested for treason in Wakefield, Alabama and confined to Fort Stoddert. The former U.S. vice president, was arrested on charges of plotting to annex Spanish territory in Louisiana and Mexico to be used toward the establishment of an independent republic.
In November 1800, in an election conducted before presidential and vice-presidential candidates shared a single ticket, Thomas Jefferson and his running mate, Aaron Burr, defeated Federalist incumbent John Adams with 73 electoral votes each. The tie vote then went to the House to be decided, and Federalist Alexander Hamilton was instrumental in breaking the deadlock in Jefferson's favor. Burr, because he finished second, became vice president.
During the next few years, President Jefferson grew apart from his vice president and did not support Burr's renomination to a second term in 1804. A faction of the Federalists, who had found their fortunes drastically diminished after the ascendance of Jefferson, sought to enlist the disgruntled Burr into their party. However, Alexander Hamilton opposed such a move and was quoted by a New York newspaper saying that he "looked upon Mr. Burr to be a dangerous man, and one who ought not to be trusted with the reins of government." The article also referred to occasions when Hamilton had expressed an even "more despicable opinion of Burr." Burr demanded an apology, Hamilton refused, so Burr challenged his old political antagonist to a duel.
On July 11, 1804, the pair met at a remote spot in Weehawken, New Jersey. Hamilton, whose son was killed in a duel in 1801, deliberately fired into the air, but Burr fired with intent to kill. Hamilton, fatally wounded, died in New York City the next day. The questionable circumstances of Hamilton's death effectively brought Burr's political career to an end.
Fleeing to Virginia, he traveled to New Orleans after finishing his term as vice president and met with U.S. General James Wilkinson, who was an agent for the Spanish. The exact nature of what the two plotted is unknown, but speculation ranges from the establishment of an independent republic in the American Southwest to the seizure of territory in Spanish America for the same purpose.
In the fall of 1806, Burr led a group of well-armed colonists toward New Orleans, prompting an immediate investigation by U.S. authorities. General Wilkinson, in an effort to save himself, turned against Burr and sent dispatches to Washington accusing Burr of treason. On February 19, 1807, Burr was arrested in Alabama for treason and sent to Richmond, Virginia, to be tried in a U.S. circuit court.
On September 1, 1807, he was acquitted on the grounds that, although he had conspired against the United States, he was not guilty of treason because he had not engaged in an "overt act," a requirement of treason as specified by the U.S. Constitution. Nevertheless, public opinion condemned him as a traitor, and he spent several years in Europe before returning to New York and resuming his law practice.
1812 Congregational missionaries Adoniram Judson, 23, and his wife Ann, 22, first sailed from New England to Calcutta, India. (Judson eventually concentrated his labors in Burma.)
1819 British explorer William Smith discovers the South Shetland Islands, and claims them in the name of King George III.
1831 First practical US coal-burning locomotive makes first trial run, Pennsylvania. A contest sponsored by B and O to build a successful locomotive is won by York foundry man Phineas Davis, who, with Israel Gartner, builds and submits a coal-burning engine named York. Davis wins the $4,000 prize.
1846 In Austin, Texas the newly formed Texas state government is officially installed. The Republic of Texas government officially transfers power to the State of Texas government following the annexation of Texas by the United States.
Stumps of trees cut at the Alder Creek site by members of the Donner Party, photograph taken in 1866. The height of the stumps indicates the depth of snow.
1847 The first group of rescuers reaches the Donner Party. The first rescuers from Sutter's Fort reach the surviving remnants of the Donner emigrant party at their snowbound camp in the high Sierra Nevada Mountains.
The events leading up to the Donner party tragedy began the summer before, when 89 emigrants from Springfield, Illinois, set out overland for California. Initially all went well, and they arrived on schedule at Fort Bridger, Wyoming, in early August. There the emigrants made the mistake of deciding to leave the usual route in favor of a supposed shortcut recently blazed by the California promoter Lansford Hastings. The so-called Hastings Cutoff proved to be anything but a shortcut, and the Donner party lost valuable time and supplies on the trip. When the emigrants finally began the difficult final push over the rugged Sierra Nevada Mountains, it was early October and uncomfortably late in the season to be attempting a high mountain passage.
The Donner party almost made it. On October 28, they camped near a high mountain lake (later named Donner Lake) with plans to begin the final push over the pass the next day. Unfortunately, an early winter storm arrived in the mountains. By morning, a thick mantle of snow covered the ground and the pass was blocked. The Donner party was trapped.
The panicked emigrants constructed makeshift tents out of the canvas from their wagons, hoping a thaw might still save them. Warmer weather never came, and by mid-December their food supplies were running low. All agreed that if they did not send for help the entire party would starve to death. Fifteen of the strongest emigrants set out west for Sutter's Fort on December 16. Three weeks later, having endured violent storms and been reduced to cannibalism to stay alive, seven survivors reached an Indian village, where news of the disaster was quickly dispatched to Sutter's Fort near San Francisco.
On January 31, seven rescuers left Sutter's Fort. When they arrived at Donner Lake 20 days later, the men saw nothing but tall white drifts of snow and ice. The men yelled out a hello, and a woman's head appeared above the snow. "Are you men from California or are you from heaven?" she asked. As the other survivors emerged from their snow-covered shelters, one writer recorded that, "It was if the rescuers' hallo had been Gabriel's horn raising the dead from their graves. Their flesh was wasted from their bodies. They wept and laughed hysterically."
After feeding the starving emigrants as much as they safely could, the rescuers began their evacuation. Other rescue parties arrived soon after to help. The trials of the Donner Party, however, were far from over. As the rescue parties struggled to lead the survivors back to Sutter's Fort, they too began to succumb to the harsh winter conditions. Many among the main body of pioneers were also forced to resort to cannibalism to stay alive. The last survivors would not reach safety until late April. Of the 89 emigrants who had departed Fort Bridger the year before, only 45 survived to reach their destination in sunny California.
1859 Daniel E. Sickles, a New York Congressman, is acquitted of murder on grounds of temporary insanity. This is the first time this defense is successfully used in the United States.
A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov.
1861 Serfdom is abolished in Russia.
1861 The New Jersey Synod was organized at German Valley, New Jersey, by six pastors and four laymen, who had received their dismissal in 1859 from the New York Ministerium.
1876 Founding of the National Amateur Press Association (NAPA) in Philadelphia.
1878 Thomas Edison patents the phonograph.
1884 More than sixty tornadoes strike the Southern United States, one of the largest tornado outbreaks in U.S. history. An astonishing series of 37 tornadoes sweept across the Southeast United States. The twisters, which came at a time in which there was no warning system in place to alert area residents, killed 167 people and injured another 1,000.
The tornadoes began early in the afternoon in Alabama. The town of Goshen lost 26 people to an F4 twister, classified as "devastating" with winds between 207 and 260 mph. A brick school building literally exploded when the tornado hit it dead on, killing six students and a teacher. Outside of Goshen, 13 more people lost their lives in Alabama.
Late in the afternoon, the storm began battering North Carolina. The town of Philadelphia lost 23 people, while another eight were killed in other smaller tornadoes in the state. There were several reports of bodies thrown hundreds of yards by the powerful twisters. In South Carolina, 27 people died, and there were also deaths reported in Kentucky and Mississippi.
Of the 37 reported tornadoes that struck the Southeast on February 19, 29 killed at least one person. The hardest-hit state was Georgia, where 68 deaths were attributed to the storm. The town of Jasper suffered 22 casualties when another F4 twister struck. Across the state, hundreds were injured, many of them rural sharecroppers.
In the years since this disaster, there have been other occasions when a series of tornadoes has reached across a broad area, but advances in weather forecasting and communications have helped to minimize deaths and injuries.
1913 First prize inserted into a Cracker Jack box. In 1913, small toys were added to each box. In ensuing decades, over seventeen billion prizes have been "awarded" to Cracker Jack purchasers. Among the numerous Cracker Jack prizes offered across the years are miniature plates, puzzles, books, bookmarks, pinball games, plastic figurines, and self-adhesive stickers. The product's logo, consisting of an illustration of a boy named Sailor Jack and his dog Bingo, was introduced during World War I (1914-18).
Satellite image of the Dardanelles
1915 World War I: The first naval attack on the Dardanelles begins when a strong Anglo-French task force bombards Ottoman artillery along the coast of Gallipoli. British and French battleships launched a massive attack on Turkish positions at Cape Helles and Kum Kaleh at the entrance to the Dardanelles, the narrow strait separating Europe from Asia in northwestern Turkey and the only waterway linking the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea.
With Turkey's entrance into World War I in November 1914 on the side of the Central Powers, the Dardanelles were controlled by Germany and its allies, thus isolating the Russian navy from the Allied naval forces and preventing cooperation between the two, as well as blocking passage of Russian wheat and British arms back and forth. An attack on the Dardanelles was thus a key objective of the Allies from the beginning of the war.
The British, and especially Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill, became convinced that it was possible to win control of the strait by a purely naval attack, avoiding the diversion of soldiers from the battlegrounds on the Western Front. At the end of January 1915, the British War Office approved a plan to bombard the Turkish positions at the Dardanelles; the initial bombardments would make way, they hoped, for British forces to move on Constantinople, knock Turkey out of the war and open a path to Russia.
Churchill set the date for the attack as February 19; on that day, a combined British and French fleet commanded by Admiral Sackville Carden opened fire with long-range guns on the outer Turkish fortresses, Cape Helles and Kum Kaleh. The bombardments made little initial impact, however, as the Turks were not caught unawares: they had long known an attack on the Dardanelles was a strong possibility and had been well fortified by their German allies.
The largely unsuccessful Allied efforts to force their way into the Dardanelles continued over the next two months, including a disastrous attempt on March 18 in which three ships were sunk and three more badly damaged by Turkish mines before the attack had even begun. Over Churchill's protests, the naval attack was called off and a larger land invasion involving 120,000 troops was planned.
On April 25, troops from Britain, Australia and New Zealand launched a ground invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula, which bordered the northern side of the strait. The Turkish defense soon pushed the Allies back to the shore, inflicting heavy casualties. Trenches were dug, and the conflict settled into a bloody stalemate for the next eight months. Some 250,000 Allied soldiers died at Gallipoli; Turkish casualty rates were roughly the same. In December, the exhausted and frustrated Allied forces began their retreat. The last Allied soldiers left Gallipoli on January 8, 1916. As a result of the disastrous campaign, Winston Churchill resigned as first lord of the Admiralty and accepted a commission to command an infantry battalion in France.
1937 Yekatit 12: During a public ceremony at the Viceregal Palace (the former Imperial residence) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, two Ethiopian nationalists of Eritrean origin attempt to kill viceroy Rodolfo Graziani with a number of grenades.
1942 World War II: Nearly 250 Japanese warplanes attack the northern Australian city of Darwin killing 243 people.
1942 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs Presidential Executive Order 9066 and began placing 100,000 persons of Japanese ancestry (of which over 2/3 were American-born citizens) into ten "relocation centers" for the duration of WWII. During confinement within the armed, barbed-wire surroundings, however, prayer meetings, Bible studies and worship services were held.
Executive Order 9066, initiated a controversial World War II policy with lasting consequences for Japanese Americans. The document ordered the removal of resident enemy aliens from parts of the West vaguely identified as military areas.
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese in 1941, Roosevelt came under increasing pressure by military and political advisors to address the nation's fears of further Japanese attack or sabotage, particularly on the West Coast, where naval ports, commercial shipping and agriculture were most vulnerable. Included in the off-limits military areas referred to in the order were ill-defined areas around West Coast cities, ports and industrial and agricultural regions. While 9066 also affected Italian and German Americans, the largest numbers of detainees were by far Japanese.
On the West Coast, long-standing racism against Japanese Americans, motivated in part by jealousy over their commercial success, erupted after Pearl Harbor into furious demands to remove them en masse to relocation camps for the duration of the war. Japanese immigrants and their descendants, regardless of American citizenship status or length of residence, were systematically rounded up and placed in detention centers. Evacuees, as they were sometimes called, could take only as many possessions as they could carry and were housed in crude, cramped quarters. In the western states, camps on remote and barren sites such as Manzanar and Tule Lake housed thousands of families whose lives were interrupted and in some cases destroyed by Executive Order 9066. Many lost businesses, farms and loved ones as a result.
Roosevelt delegated enforcement of 9066 to the War Department, telling Secretary of War Henry Stimson to be as reasonable as possible in executing the order. Attorney General Francis Biddle recalled Roosevelt's grim determination to do whatever he thought was necessary to win the war. Biddle observed that Roosevelt was [not] much concerned with the gravity or implications of issuing an order that essentially contradicted the Bill of Rights. In her memoirs, Eleanor Roosevelt recalled being completely floored by her husband's action. A fierce proponent of civil rights, Eleanor hoped to change Roosevelt's mind, but when she brought the subject up with him, he interrupted her and told her never to mention it again.
During the war, the U.S. Supreme Court heard two cases challenging the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, upholding it both times. Finally, on February 19, 1976, decades after the war, Gerald Ford signed an order prohibiting the executive branch from reinstituting the notorious and tragic World War II order. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan issued a public apology on behalf of the government and authorized reparations for former Japanese internees or their descendants.
The 2nd Battalion, 16th Infantry Regiment of the United States Army marches through the Kasserine Pass and on to Kasserine and Farriana, Tunisia February 26, 1943
1943 World War II: Battle of the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia begins.
A U.S. 37 mm (1.5 in) gun fires against Japanese cave positions in the north face of Mount Suribachi
1945 World War II: Battle of Iwo Jima: About 30,000 United States Marines land on the island of Iwo Jima.
1948 The Conference of Youth and Students of Southeast Asia Fighting for Freedom and Independence convenes in Calcutta.
1949 Ezra Pound is awarded the first Bollingen Prize in poetry by the Bollingen Foundation and Yale University.
1953 Censorship: Georgia approves the first literature censorship board in the United States.
1955 "Sincerely" by the McGuire Sisters topped the charts
1959 The United Kingdom grants Cyprus independence, which is then formally proclaimed on August 16, 1960.
1960 China successfully launches the T-7, its first sounding rocket.
An early strip featuring (L to R) Daddy (Bil), Dolly, Billy, Mommy (Thel), and Jeffy. A fourth child, P.J., was introduced in 1962.
1960 Bil Keane's "Family Circus" cartoon strip debuts
1963 The publication of Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique reawakens the Feminist Movement in the United States as women's organizations and consciousness raising groups spread.
1964 UK flies 1/2 ton of The Beatles wigs to the US.
1965 Colonel Phạm Ngọc Thảo of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, and a communist spy of the North Vietnamese Viet Minh, along with Generals Lâm Văn Phát and Trần Thiện Khiêm attempted a coup against the military junta of Nguyễn Khánh.
1972 The Asama-Sansō hostage standoff begins in Japan.
1976 Executive Order 9066, which led to the relocation of Japanese Americans to internment camps, is rescinded by President Gerald R. Ford's Proclamation 4417
1978 Egyptian forces raid Larnaca International Airport in an attempt to intervene in a hijacking, without authorisation from the Republic of Cyprus authorities. The Cypriot National Guard and Police forces kill 15 Egyptian commandos and destroy the Egyptian C-130 transport plane in open combat.
1985 William J. Schroeder becomes the first recipient of an artificial heart to leave hospital.
1985 Iberia Airlines Boeing 727 crashes into Mount Oiz in Spain, killing 148.
1985 EastEnders, BBC's flagship soap opera, broadcasts for the first time.
1986 Akkaraipattu massacre: the Sri Lankan Army massacres 80 Tamil farm workers in the eastern province of Sri Lanka.
1987 Anti-smoking ad airs for first time on TV, featuring Yul Brynner
1999 Viji George was chosen as president of Concordia College (Bronxville, New York). George had been a professor of psychology at the school since 1979. A native of Madras, India, he graduated from Concordia Teachers College (River Forest, Illinois) and received a doctorate from Northern Illinois University in 1979.
2001 The Oklahoma City bombing museum is dedicated at the Oklahoma City National Memorial.
Conceptual drawing of Mars Odyssey over Mars.
2002 NASA's Mars Odyssey space probe begins to map the surface of Mars using its thermal emission imaging system.
Russian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76MD
2003 An Ilyushin Il-76 military aircraft crashes near Kerman, Iran, killing 275.
2006 A methane explosion in a coal mine near Nueva Rosita, Mexico, kills 65 miners.
2008 Fidel Castro resigns; younger brother Raul to succeed
The shipwreck is of a dhow similar in size and construction to this one, in Oman
2011 The debut exhibition of the Belitung shipwreck, containing the largest collection of Tang Dynasty artefacts found in one location, begins in Singapore.
2012 Forty-four people are killed in a prison brawl in Apodaca, Nuevo León, Mexico. The Blog del Narco, a blog that documents events and people of the Mexican Drug War anonymously, reported that the actual (unofficial) death toll may be more than 70 people. The fight was between Los Zetas and the Gulf Cartel, two drug cartels that operate in northeastern Mexico.
1473 Nicolaus Copernicus Torún, Poland, astronomer (heliocentrism)
1552 Melchior Klesl, Austrian cardinal (d. 1630)
1780 Richard McCarty, American politician (d. 1844)
1800 Émilie Gamelin, Canadian nun, founded the Sisters of Providence (d. 1851)
1818 Albert Bushnell, D.D., "Patriarch of West African Missions," in Rome, New York (d. 1879).
1821 Francis Preston Blair Jr., Union General, in Lexington, Kentucky. The colorful Blair was instrumental in keeping Missouri part of the Union during the early stages of the Civil War.
Blair's father served as an advisor to several presidents. His namesake and youngest son was privileged and rebellious as a youth. As a college student, the younger Blair was expelled from the University of North Carolina and Yale for misconduct. He finally finished his degree at Princeton, but was denied graduation for participating in a wild party in his final week. Blair's degree was bestowed a year later after an influential friend intervened on his behalf.
Blair studied law in Kentucky and went on to practice in Missouri with his brother, Montgomery, who would later serve as U.S. postmaster general under President Abraham Lincoln. During the 1850s, Francis ran an anti-slave newspaper in St. Louis and served in the Missouri legislature. He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1856. Blair was opposed to the extension of slavery, even though he owned a few slaves himself. His stance led to his defeat for re-election in 1858.
In 1860, Blair campaigned for Abraham Lincoln and also regained his congressional seat. When the Civil War erupted, he organized Missouri's Unionist forces and helped save the federal arsenal in St. Louis from the Confederates. Blair personally organized seven regiments from Missouri, and became a brigadier general, winning the respect of his superiors, Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman. Blair commanded a corps during Sherman's March to the Sea in Georgia in 1864.
After the war, Blair served in the U.S. Senate, but a stroke ended his political career. He died in 1875.
1827 Charles Robert Woods Brevet Major General (Union Army), (d 1885)
1866 Mary Anderson (d June 27, 1953) American real estate developer, rancher, viticulturist and inventor of the windshield wiper blade. In November 1903 Anderson was granted her first patent for an automatic car window cleaning device controlled inside the car, called the windshield wiper
1871 Lugenia Burns Hope, American activist (d. 1947)
1895 Louis Calhern, American actor (d. 1956)
1897 Alma Rubens, American actress (d. 1931)
1902 Kay Boyle, American author and educator (d. 1992)
1903 Louis Slobodkin, American author and illustrator (d. 1975)
1906 Eugene Eisenmann, Panamanian-American ornithologist (d. 1981)
1910 Dorothy Janis, American actress (d. 2010)
1911 Merle Oberon, Indian-American actress (d. 1979)
1912 Saul Chaplin, American composer and director (d. 1997)
1916 Eddie Arcaro, American jockey (d. 1997)
1917 Carson McCullers, American author (d. 1967)
1920 C. Z. Guest, American actress, fashion designer, and author (d. 2003)
1924 Lee Marvin, American actor (d. 1987)
1924 Bruce Norris, American businessman (d. 1986)
1926 Ross Thomas, American author (d. 1995)
1930 John Frankenheimer, American director and producer (d. 2002)
1932 Joseph P. Kerwin, American physician and astronaut
1934 Carole Eastman, American actress and screenwriter (d. 2004)
1935 Dave Niehaus, American sportscaster (d. 2010)
1936 Sam Myers, American singer-songwriter (d. 2006)
1937 Terry Carr, American author and educator (d. 1987)
1937 David Margulies, American actor
1937 Robert Walker, American guitarist
1940 Jaan Kiivit, Jr., Estonian archbishop (d. 2005)
1940 Smokey Robinson, American singer-songwriter and producer (The Miracles)
1940 Bobby Rogers, American singer-songwriter (The Miracles) (d. 2013)
1941 David Gross, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate in 2004 for the co- discovery of asymptotic freedom.
1942 Paul Krause, American football player
1942 Howard Stringer, Welsh-American businessman
1943 Lou Christie, (Lugee Alfredo Giovanni Sacco ) American singer-songwriter
1943 Jim Cosman, American baseball player (d. 2013)
1943 Homer Hickam, American author and engineer
1944 Les Hinton, English-American journalist and businessman
1945 Michael Nader, American actor
1946 Karen Silkwood, American technician and activist (d. 1974)
1946 Homer Hadley Hickam Jr. (born February 19, 1943) American author, Vietnam veteran, and a former NASA engineer who trained the first Japanese astronauts. His memoir Rocket Boys (aka October Sky) was a New York Times Best Seller and was the basis for the 1999 film October Sky. Hickam has also written a number of best-selling memoirs and novels including the "Josh Thurlow" historical fiction novels and his 2015 best-selling Carrying Albert Home, A Somewhat True Story of a Man, his Wife, and her Alligator. His books have been translated into many languages.
1948 Mark Andes, American singer-songwriter and bass player (Spirit, Firefall, Jo Jo Gunne, and Heart)
1948 Big John Studd, American wrestler and actor (d. 1995)
1949 Danielle Bunten Berry, American game designer and programmer (d. 1998)
1949 William Messner-Loebs, American author and illustrator
1951 Stephen Nichols, American actor
1952 Amy Tan, American author
1953 Bill Kirchenbauer American comedian and actor
1954 Michael Gira, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Swans, Angels of Light, The World of Skin, and Circus Mort)
1955 Jeff Daniels, American actor, singer, and playwright
1956 Kathleen Beller, American actress
1956 Peter Holsapple, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (The dBs and The Continental Drifters)
1956 Roderick MacKinnon, American biologist, Nobel Prize laureate
1957 Lorianne Crook, American radio and television host
1958 Tommy Cairo, American wrestler
1959 Roger Goodell, American businessman
1960 John Paul, Jr., American race car driver
1962 John Laroche, American horticulturalist
1963 Laurell K. Hamilton, American author
1963 Jessica Tuck, American actress
1964 Doug Aldrich, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Whitesnake, Burning Rain, Hurricane, Bad Moon Rising, Lion, and Dio)
1964 Jonathan Lethem, American author
1964 Richard A. Scott, American author and illustrator
1965 Leroy, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Smash Mouth)
1965 Jon Fishman, American drummer (Phish, Pork Tornado, and Surrender to the Air)
1966 Justine Bateman, American actress and producer
1966 Eduardo Xol, American designer and author
1969 Burton C. Bell, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Fear Factory, Ascension of the Watchers, City of Fire, and GZR)
1971 Miguel Batista, Dominican baseball player
1971 Jeff Kinney, American author and illustrator
1971 Gil Shaham, Israeli-American violinist
1972 Francine Fournier, American wrestler
1973 Eric Lange, American actor
1974 Danny Doring, American wrestler
1975 Daewon Song, South Korean-American skateboarder, co-founded Almost Skateboards
1976 Jahidi White, American basketball player
1977 Andrew Ross Sorkin, American journalist and author
1978 Immortal Technique, Peruvian-American rapper
1979 Bassnectar, American DJ and producer
1979 Steve Cherundolo, American soccer player
1980 Dwight Freeney, American football player
1980 Mike Miller, American basketball player
1981 Beth Ditto, American singer-songwriter (The Gossip)
1981 Kyle Martino, American soccer player
1981 Gil Reyes, American boxer
1983 Ryan Whitney, American ice hockey player
1984 Chris Richardson, American singer-songwriter
1985 Haylie Duff, American actress and singer
1985 Arielle Kebbel, American actress
1986 Michael Schwimer, American baseball player
1988 Seth Morrison, American guitarist (Skillet)
1988 Selkirk, English race horse (d. 2013)
1991 Trevor Bayne, American race car driver
1993 Victoria Justice, American actress, singer, and dancer
2001 David Mazouz, American actor
1672 Charles Chauncy, English-American academic (b. 1592)
1735 Alexander Mack Although Alexander Mack was behind not just one but several new denominations, he did not want that reputation. He was so determined not to be honored as a founder of new sects that when he lay dying, he said, "Now when I am gone, don't mark my grave, or they might sometime want to erect a monument...." His children protested and finally he agreed to allow them to remember him with a small slab. Mack died on this day in Germantown, Pennsylvania.
His pilgrimage from Germany to the graveyard in Germantown was the result of faith. Mack was born near Heidelberg, Germany in 1679 and baptized as a baby in the Reformed church. He had intended to go to college, but the death of an older brother forced him to work the family mill. An avid reader, he never stopped educating himself.
The state churches of Germany seemed lifeless to Mack. And he was appalled by the way "Christian" armies butchered one another in Europe. Influenced by the religious awakening known as Pietism, he saw that Christianity must be more a matter of the heart than of the head.
He studied the Bible and became convinced that the established churches were not following its teachings. Although there was a law against leading private Bible studies in the home, he defied it. One day, while he worshipped with a number of others, authorities broke in and threatened to arrest them all.
Mack and his wife fled with their children. They found refuge in Schwarzenau, a village near Marburg. From the Bible, he concluded that the only meaningful baptism was by immersion of believers who were old enough to understand the act. He and seven others, who had been baptized as children, decided to obey Scripture as they understood it. Mack pleaded that they draw lots to see who should conduct the ceremony, not wanting to be known as the founder of yet another religious group. But in August 1708, after one of the other believers baptized Mack in the Eder river, he baptized the rest.
Because of their views on baptism, these brethren became known by such names as Dunkards, Tunkards, and Old Baptists.
Mack insisted that followers of Christ must count the cost. They must be prepared to suffer the loss of everything for the sake of their Lord. At love feasts, these brethren would sing hymns, examine their consciences, and wash one another's feet. They followed this with a simple meal. Soon their numbers had grown to 200.
Persecution again threatened. The non-violent brethren fled to the Netherlands where Mennonites helped them. While he was in the Netherlands, Mack's wife and a young daughter died.
Circumstances changed. Led by Mack, 59 families of these brethren migrated to Pennsylvania, rejoicing in their new-found religious freedom. Again Mack's influence was great and the Dunkards founded several congregations. To these early congregations, several of America's Brethren denominations trace their roots and practices.
1789 Nicholas Vandyke, English-American lawyer and politician, 7th Governor of Delaware (b. 1738)
1809 James Vann (b ca. 1765–68) influential Cherokee leader, one of the triumvirate with Major Ridge and Charles R. Hicks, who led the Upper Towns of East Tennessee and North Georgia. He was the son of Wah-Li Vann (a mixed-race Cherokee woman), and Scots fur trader John Joseph Vann. He was born into his mother's Wild Potato clan (also called Blind Savannah clan). Vann was among the younger leaders of the Cherokee who thought its people needed to acculturate to deal with the European Americans and the United States government. He encouraged the Moravians to establish a mission school on Cherokee land, and became a wealthy planter and slaveholder.
1864 William Edwin Baldwin US Confederate Brigadier-General
1869 Elizabeth Clephane, 39, an orphaned Scottish poet who left the Church with two hauntingly beautiful hymns: "Beneath the Cross of Jesus" and "The Ninety and Nine." (All of Clephane's poetry was published posthumously.)
1884 George Henry Martin Johnson (Onwanonsyshon) (b October 7, 1816) member of the Wolf clan and selected as a hereditary chief of the Mohawk of the Six Nations in Canada; he also served as an official interpreter and informal diplomat between the Mohawk and Canadian governments. His home of Chiefswood, built in 1856 on the Grand River, has been designated and preserved as a National Historic Site; it is the only First Nations mansion from the pre-Confederation era.
1936 Billy Mitchell, American general, the father of the United States Air Force. (b. 1879)
1941 A. A. Grossmann, teacher, first executive secretary of the Walther League and assistant manager of Concordia Publishing House, (b. 18 February 1890).
1942 Frank Abbandando, American gangster (b. 1910)
1945 John Basilone, American sergeant, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1916)
1945 Fay Moulton, American sprinter, football player, coach and lawyer (b. 1876)
1958 Charles King, American jumper (b. 1880)
1959 Willard Miller, American sailor, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1877)
1962 Georgios Papanikolaou, Greek-American pathologist, invented the Pap smear (b. 1883)
1969 Madge Blake, American actress (b. 1899)
1972 Lee Morgan, American trumpet player and composer (b. 1938)
1972 Tedd Pierce, American animator, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1906)
1977 Mike González, Cuban baseball player (b. 1890)
1983 Alice White, American actress (b. 1904)
1988 André Frédéric Cournand, French-American physician and physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1895)
1992 Tojo Yamamoto, American wrestler (b. 1927)
1996 Charlie Finley, American businessman (b. 1918)
1997 Leo Rosten, Polish-American author and academic (b. 1908)
1997 Deng Xiaoping, Chinese politician, 1st Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China (b. 1904)
1997 Frank Delfino, American actor (b. 1911)
1998 Grandpa Jones, American singer-songwriter and banjo player (b. 1913)
1999 Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr, Iraqi cleric (b. 1943)
2001 Stanley Kramer, American director and producer (b. 1913)
2002 Virginia Hamilton, American author (b. 1934)
2003 Johnny Paycheck, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1938)
2007 Janet Blair, American actress (b. 1921)
2010 Laura Spurr, American tribal leader (b. 1945)
2011 Ollie Matson, American sprinter and football player (b. 1930)
2012 Ruth Barcan Marcus, American philosopher and logician (b. 1921)
2013 Armen Alchian, American economist and academic (b. 1914)
2013 John Brascia, American actor and dancer (b. 1932)
2013 Lou Myers, American actor (b. 1935)
2013 Robert Coleman Richardson, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1937)
2013 Donald Richie, American-Japanese author and critic (b. 1924)
2014 Dale Gardner, American captain and astronaut (b. 1948)
2014 Jim Weirich, American computer scientist, developed Rake Software (b. 1956)
Holidays and observances
Christian Feast Day:
Barbatus of Benevento
Conrad of Piacenza
February 19 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Apostles Archippus and Philemon of the Seventy Apostles, and Martyr Apphia (1st century)
Martyrs Maximus, Theodotus, Hesychius, and Asclepiodota of Adrianopolis (305-311)
Venerable Saints Eugene and Macarius, Priests, Confessors at Antioch (363)
Saint Mesrop the Translator, of Armenia (439)
Venerable Rabulas of Samosata (c. 530)
Venerable Conon, Abbot in Palestine (555)
Saint Dositheus of Gaza, disciple of Saint Abba Dorotheus (7th century)
Venerable Sophronios, Bishop
Pre-Schism Western saints
Saint Gabinus, a martyr in Rome who was related to the Emperor Diocletian, but also the brother of Pope Gaius, and father of the martyr St Susanna (c. 295)
Saint Quodvultdeus, Bishop of Carthage in North Africa, exiled by the Arian Genseric King of the Vandals after the capture of the city in 439 (450)
Saint Valerius (Valére), Bishop of Antibes in the south of France (c. 450)
Saint Odran, ranks as the first Christian martyr in Irish history (c. 452)
Saints Publius, Julian, Marcellus and Companions, martyrs in North Africa.
Saint Barbatus of Benevento, took part in the Sixth Oecumenical Council in Constantinople at which Monothelitism was condemned (682)
Saint Mansuetus, Bishop of Milan and Confessor, he wrote a treatise against Monothelitism (c. 690)
Saint Beatus of Liébana, a monk at Liebana and was famous for his firm stand against Adoptionism (789)
Saint George of Lodève, a monk at Saint-Foi-de-Conques in Rouergue but later moved to Vabres and became Bishop of Lodève (c. 884)
Post-Schism Orthodox saints
Saint Yaroslav the Wise, son of the Varangian (Viking) Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (1054) (see also: February 20 - Slavonic; and February 28)
New Nun-martyr Philothea of Athens (1588)
Venerable Theodore, Abbot of Sanaxar Monastery (1791)
New Hieromartyr Nicetas, Hieromonk, of Epirus and Mt. Athos, at Serres (1809) (see also: April 4)
Saint Maria, desert-dweller of Olonets (1860) (see also: February 9)
New martyrs and confessors
New Hieromartyr Vladimir (Terentiev), Abbot, of Zosima Hermitage, Smolensk (1933)
New Martyr Demetrius Volkov (1942)
Icon of the Mother of God of Cyprus (392)[