February 18 Feb 18, 2015 0:45:52 GMT -5
Post by Evon on Feb 18, 2015 0:45:52 GMT -5
February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar.
There are 316 days remaining until the end of the year
Days left until elections:
U.S. Debt Clock: www.usdebtclock.org/
1229 The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy.
1268 The Livonian Order is defeated by Dovmont of Pskov in the Battle of Rakvere.
1332 Amda Seyon I, Emperor of Ethiopia begins his campaigns in the southern Muslim provinces.
1562 Religious wars in France between the Huguenots (French Protestants) and the Roman Catholics (lasting until 1598) forced a band of Huguenot colonists to leave France for religious refuge in Florida.
1571 A group of Spanish Jesuits in the Chesapeake Bay area, led by Fray Batista Segura, were murdered by the Indians they had come six months earlier to convert. The massacre led ultimately to the withdrawal of all Jesuits living in Florida as well.
The naval battle against the Spanish near Dunkerque, 18 February 1639
1637 Eighty Years' War: Off the coast of Cornwall, England, a Spanish fleet intercepts an important Anglo-Dutch merchant convoy of 44 vessels escorted by 6 warships, destroying or capturing 20 of them.
1678 John Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" was first published, in England. Bunyan was frequently imprisoned for preaching without a license. During these sequestered times, between 1660-72, Bunyan collected the ideas enabling him to pen this masterpiece of Christian literature.
The petition was the first American public document to protest slavery. It was also one of the first written public declarations of universal human rights.
1688 At a monthly meeting in Germantown, PA, a group of Quakers and Mennonites became the first white body in English America to register a formal protest against slavery. The historic "Germantown Protest" denounced both slavery and the slave trade.
1745 The city of Surakarta, Central Java is founded on the banks of Bengawan Solo River, and becomes the capital of the Kingdom of Surakarta.
An 18th-century Dutch hoeker
1766 A mutiny by captive Malagasy begins at sea on the slave ship Meermin, leading to the ship's destruction on Cape Agulhas in present-day South Africa and the recapture of the instigators. During the mutiny half the ship's crew and almost 30 Malagasy lost their lives.
1781 Fourth Anglo-Dutch War: Captain Thomas Shirley opens his expedition against Dutch colonial outposts on the Gold Coast of Africa (present-day Ghana).
1797 French Revolutionary Wars: Sir Ralph Abercromby and a fleet of 18 British warships invade Trinidad.
1801 Peter Muhlenberg (1746–1807), son of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, was elected to the U.S. Senate.
1814 Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Montereau.
1846 On the three-hundredth anniversary of the death of Martin Luther, the church in Altenburg, Missouri, was draped with yards and yards of black cloth. A special preparatory service was conducted the week before, and on the day of the anniversary there was a morning service at 10:00 and an afternoon service at 2:00. In his announcements from the pulpit Pastor Gotthold Heinrich Löber (1797–1849) called Luther “our father who rests in God, who has fallen asleep in the Lord.” This information was taken from Löber’s Vermeldungsbuch, his listing of church announcements that begins on the first Sunday in Advent 1835 in Eichenberg, Saxony. Turning the book upside down and beginning at the back, Pastor Löber used the same book for his announcements in Perry County, Missouri. The announcements concerning the anniversary of Luther’s death were made on Sexagesima Sunday 1846.
1861 In Montgomery, Alabama, Jefferson Davis is inaugurated as the provisional President of the Confederate States of America.
1861 With Italian unification almost complete, Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia assumes the title of King of Italy.
Monument marking site of original South Carolina State House, designed and built from 1786 to 1790 by James Hoban and burned by the Union Army in 1865
1865 American Civil War: Union forces under Major General William T. Sherman set the South Carolina State House on fire during the burning of Columbia.
1867 The Augusta Institute was founded in Georgia. Established as an institution of higher learning for black students, it moved to Atlanta in 1879, and in 1913 changed its name to Morehouse College.
1873 Bulgarian revolutionary leader and national hero of Bulgaria, Vasil Levski, the Apostle of Freedom, is executed by hanging in Sofia by the Ottoman authorities.
John Tunstall in 1872, the year in which he emigrated from England to the North American Continent.
1878 John Tunstall is murdered by outlaw Jesse Evans, sparking the Lincoln County War in Lincoln County, New Mexico.
1st edition book cover
1885 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain is published in the United States.
1900 Second Boer War: Imperial forces suffer their worst single-day loss of life on Bloody Sunday, the first day of the Battle of Paardeberg.
1906 Edouard de Laveleye forms the Belgian Olympic Committee in Brussels.
1911 The first official flight with air mail takes place from Allahabad, United Provinces, British India (now India), when Henri Pequet, a 23-year-old pilot, delivers 6,500 letters to Naini, about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) away.
1913 Pedro Lascuráin becomes President of Mexico for 45 minutes; this is the shortest term to date of any person as president of any country.
Computer-generated map of Pluto
1930 While studying photographs taken in January, Clyde Tombaugh discovers Pluto.
Painting of Elm Farm Ollie by E.D. Thalinger in 1930
1930 Elm Farm Ollie becomes the first cow to fly in a fixed-wing aircraft and also the first cow to be milked in an aircraft.
1932 The Empire of Japan declares Manzhouguo (the obsolete Chinese name for Manchuria) independent from the Republic of China.
From left to right: Ernest Forster, Lewis Strong, John Rabe, Casey Smythe, Eduard Sperling, George Fitch
1938 During the Nanking Massacre the Nanking Safety Zone International Committee is renamed "Nanking International Rescue Committee" and the safety zone in place for refugees falls apart.
1942 World War II: The Imperial Japanese Army begins the systematic extermination of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese in Singapore.
1943 The Nazis arrest the members of the White Rose movement.
1943 Joseph Goebbels delivers his Sportpalast speech.
1946 Sailors of the Royal Indian Navy mutiny in Bombay harbour, from where the action spreads throughout the Provinces of British India, involving 78 ships, twenty shore establishments and 20,000 sailors
1947 First Indochina War: The French gain complete control of Hanoi after forcing the Viet Minh to withdraw to mountains.
1954 The first Church of Scientology is established in Los Angeles, California.
1955 Operation Teapot: Teapot test shot "Wasp" is successfully detonated at the Nevada Test Site with a yield of 1.2 kilotons. Wasp is the first of fourteen shots in the Teapot series.
1957 Kenyan rebel leader Dedan Kimathi is executed by the British colonial government.
1957 Walter James Bolton becomes the last person legally executed in New Zealand.
1965 The Gambia becomes independent from the United Kingdom.
1969 Hawthorne Nevada Airlines Flight 708 crashes into Mount Whitney killing all on board.
1970 The Chicago Seven are found not guilty of conspiring to incite riots at the 1968 Democratic National Convention.
1972 The California Supreme Court in the case of People v. Anderson, (6 Cal.3d 628) invalidates the state's death penalty and commutes the sentences of all death row inmates to life imprisonment.
1977 The Space Shuttle Enterprise test vehicle is carried on its maiden "flight" on top of a Boeing 747.
1978 The first Ironman Triathlon competition takes place on the island of Oahu and is won by Gordon Haller.
1979 Snow falls in the Sahara Desert in southern Algeria for the only time in recorded history.
1983 Thirteen people die and one is seriously injured in the Wah Mee massacre in Seattle, Washington. It is said to be the largest robbery-motivated mass-murder in U.S. history.
1991 The IRA explodes bombs in the early morning at Paddington station and Victoria station in London.
2001 FBI agent Robert Hanssen is arrested for spying for the Soviet Union. He is ultimately convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment.
2001 Seven-time NASCAR Sprint Cup Series champion Dale Earnhardt dies in an accident during the Daytona 500.
2001 Inter-ethnic violence between Dayaks and Madurese breaks out in Sampit, Indonesia, that will ultimately result in more than 500 deaths and 100,000 Madurese displaced from their homes.
2003 Nearly 200 people die in the Daegu subway fire in South Korea.
2004 Up to 295 people, including nearly 200 rescue workers, die near Neyshabur in Iran when a runaway freight train carrying sulfur, petrol and fertilizer catches fire and explodes.
2007 Terrorist bombs explode on the Samjhauta Express in Panipat, Haryana, India, killing 68 people.
2010 Kermit Gosnell's Women's Medical Society, was raided under a search warrant by investigators from the FBI and Pennsylvania State
police. The raid was the result of a months-long investigation by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the Philadelphia Police Department, and the State's Dangerous Drug-Offender Unit into suspected illegal drug prescription use at the practice. The investigation had also revealed the suspicious death of patient Karnamaya Mongar in 2009, which had in turn brought to light further information about unsanitary operations, use of untrained staff, and use of powerful drugs without proper medical supervision and control.
2014 At least 76 people are killed and hundreds are injured in clashes between riot police and demonstrators in Kiev, Ukraine.
1372 Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Egyptian jurist and scholar (d. 1448)
1516 Mary I of England (d. 1558)
1605 Abraham Ecchellensis (Latinized name of Ibrahim al-Haqulani) in Haqil, Syria. A Maronite Catholic philosopher and linguist involved in the translation of the Bible into Arabic. He translated several Arabic works into Latin, the most important of which was the Chronicon Orientale of Ibnar-Rahib. (d. 15 July 1664).
1781 Henry Martyn, Anglican missionary to Persia. Martyn first sailed for the East in 1805. His great linguistic gifts led him to translate the New Testament both into Hindustani and Arabic, before his premature death at 31.
1814 Samuel Fenton Cary, American lawyer, politician and significant temperance movement leader in the 19th century. Cary became well-known nationally as a prohibitionist author and lecturer. (d. 1900)
1817 Lewis Armistead, American general. At the Battle of Gettysburg, he took part in Pickett's Charge, where he led his brigade further than any other, to a spot commemorated as the High Water Mark of the Confederacy. But they were overwhelmed by a Union counterattack, where he was wounded and captured, dying soon afterwards. (d. 1863)
1819 Indian Joe, (Captain Joe, Old Joe, Jo Indian, Joe Injun, Abenaki translation of Joseph: Susapp) Native American scout. During the American Revolutionary War, he served under Jacob Bayley and later under Moses Hazen. (b 1739)
1836 Ramakrishna, Indian mystic and guru (d. 1886)
1848 Louis Comfort Tiffany, American stained glass artist (d. 1933)
1862 Charles M. Schwab, American businessman, co-founded Bethlehem Steel (d. 1939)
1863 Monte Blue (born Gerard Montgomery Bluefeather, January 11, 1887 – February 18, 1963) movie actor who began his career as a romantic leading man in the silent film era, and later progressed to character roles. (Montana, Oh Boy) Blue was born in Indianapolis, Indiana. His father was half French and part Cherokee and Osage Indian. When his father died, his mother could not rear five children alone, so Blue and one of his brothers were admitted to the Indiana Soldiers' and Sailors' Children's Home. He eventually worked his way through Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana.
Blue grew to six feet, three inches tall. He played football and worked as a fireman, railroad worker, coal miner, cowpuncher, ranch hand, circus rider, lumberjack, and day laborer at the studios of D. W. Griffith.
1870 William Laurel Harris, American painter and author. He painted murals, designed the decorative elements, and continued the work of John LaFarge at the Church of Saint Paul the Apostle (also known as the Paulist Fathers Church) on 59th Street and 9th Avenue, New York City. The church was called "an experiment in democracy in American art" by the order's founder, Isaac Thomas Hecker. (d. 1924)
1874 William Sandys (b. 1792), English lawyer and composer of "The First Noel,"
Edward Arnold, on the radio show
Three Thirds of the Nation
1890 Edward Arnold, (Gunther Edward Arnold Schneider) American actor (d. 1956)
1890 Adolphe Menjou, American actor (d. 1963)
1892 Wendell Willkie, American lawyer and politician (d. 1944)
1901 Reginald Sheffield, English-American actor (d. 1957)
1902 Walter Herbert, German-American conductor (d. 1975)
1905 Queenie Leonard, (Pearl Walker) English-American actress and singer (d. 2002)
1907 Oscar Brodney, American lawyer and screenwriter (d. 2008)
1909 Wallace Stegner, American historian, novelist, short story writer, and environmentalist, often called "The Dean of Western Writers". He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1972 and the U.S. National Book Award in 1977. (d. 1993)
Cowboy Copas the original version of Tennessee Waltz 1948
1914 Pee Wee King, (Julius Frank Anthony Kuczynski ) American country music songwriter and recording artist best known for co-writing "The Tennessee Waltz". (d. 2000)
1916 Lloyd Kiva New (Cherokee, 1916–2002) was a pioneer of modern Native American fashion design and one of the co-founders of the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. New was born Lloyd Henri New oin Fairland, Oklahoma. His father William Edward New (1875–1968) was Scots-Irish, and his mother, Josephine Colston New (1875–1955), was fullblood Cherokee.
La Familia Jose Curbelo
1917 José Curbelo, Cuban-American pianist and manager (d. 2012)
1918 Jane Loevinger, American psychologist (d. 2008)
1919 Jack Palance, American actor (d. 2006)
1920 Bill Cullen, American game show host (d. 1990)
1922 Helen Gurley Brown, American author and publisher (d. 2012)
1922 Allan Melvin, American actor (d. 2008)
1922 Joe Tipton, American baseball player (d. 1994)
1922 Connie Wisniewski, American baseball player (d. 1995)
1924 Sam Rolfe, American screenwriter and producer (d. 1993)
1925 Jack Gilbert, American poet (d. 2012)
1925 George Kennedy, American actor
1926 A. R. Ammons, American poet (d. 2001)
1926 Wallace Berman, American painter and illustrator (d. 1976)
1927 John Warner, American politician, 61st United States Secretary of the Navy
1930 Gahan Wilson, American author and illustrator
1931 Johnny Hart, American cartoonist (d. 2007)
1931 Toni Morrison, American author, Nobel Prize laureate
1931 Bob St. Clair, American football player
1932 Miloš Forman, Czech-American director and screenwriter
1933 Yoko Ono, Japanese-American singer-songwriter (Plastic Ono Band)
1934 Audre Lorde, American poet and activist (d. 1992)
1936 Jean M. Auel, American author
1938 Manny Mota, Dominican baseball player
1939 Dal Maxvill, American baseball player
1941 Herman Santiago, Puerto Rican-American singer-songwriter (The Teenagers)
1941 Irma Thomas, American singer-songwriter
1944 Pat Bowlen, American businessman
1944 Margaret H. Wright, American computer scientist
1945 Judy Rankin, American golfer
1947 Dennis DeYoung, American singer-songwriter, keyboard player, and producer (Styx)
1947 Eliot Engel, American educator and politician
1948 Keith Knudsen, American singer-songwriter and drummer (The Doobie Brothers and Southern Pacific) (d. 2005)
1949 Gary Ridgway, American serial killer
1950 John Hughes, American director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2009)
1950 Cybill Shepherd, American actress and singer
1952 Randy Crawford, American singer
1952 Maurice Lucas, American basketball player (d. 2010)
1952 Juice Newton, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1954 Charlie Fowler, American mountaineer, author, and photographer (d. 2006)
1954 John Travolta, American actor, singer, and producer
1956 Paul Reed Smith, American businessman, founded PRS Guitars
1957 George Pelecanos, American author
1957 Vanna White, American actress and game show host
1958 Gar Samuelson, American drummer (Megadeth) (d. 1999)
1959 Ken Freedman, American radio host
1959 James Metzger, American businessman and philanthropist
1960 Tony Anselmo, American animator and voice actor
1961 Douglas Rushkoff, American theorist and author
1961 Cosmo Wilson, American lighting designer
1962 Julie Strain, American actress and model
1964 Matt Dillon, American actor and director
1965 Dr. Dre, American rapper, producer, and actor (World Class Wreckin' Cru and N.W.A)
1965 Gregory Scott Johnson, American murderer (d. 2005)
1966 Guy Ferland, American director and producer
1967 Tracey Edmonds, American businesswoman
1967 John Valentin, American baseball player
1968 Molly Ringwald, American actress, singer, and dancer
1970 Susan Egan, American actress and singer
1970 James Fowler, American social scientist
1973 Shawn Estes, American baseball player
1974 Carrie Ann Baade, American painter
1974 Jamey Carroll, American baseball player
1974 Julia Butterfly Hill, American environmentalist
1974 Jillian Michaels, American fitness trainer
1975 Sarah Brown, American actress
1976 Leilani Munter, American race car driver
1976 Chanda Rubin, American tennis player
1977 Sean Watkins, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Nickel Creek, Fiction Family and Works Progress Administration)
1980 Regina Spektor, Russian-American singer-songwriter, pianist, and producer
1981 Alex Ríos, American baseball player
1981 Larry Sweeney, American wrestler and manager (d. 2011)
1982 Juelz Santana, American rapper and actor (Skull Gang and The Diplomats)
1983 Troy Bienemann, American football player
1983 Jason Maxiell, American basketball player
1985 Lee Boyd Malvo, Jamaican-American murderer
1986 T.J. Mack, American wrestler
1988 Shane Lyons, American actor and chef
1988 Maiara Walsh, American actress
1991 Malese Jow, American actress and singer
1992 Logan Miller, American actor
1993 Unbridled's Song, American race horse (d. 2013)
1995 Samantha Crawford, American tennis player
814 Angilbert, Frankish monk and diplomat (b. 760)
901 Thābit ibn Qurra, Iraqi physician, astronomer, and mathematician (b. 826)
999 Pope Gregory V (b. 972)
1294 Kublai Khan, Mongolian emperor (b. 1215)
1405 Timur, Mongol ruler (b. 1336)
1455 Fra Angelico, Italian painter (b. 1395)
1535 Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, German magician, astrologer, and theologian (b. 1486)
1546 Martin Luther, German monk and priest, leader of the Protestant Reformation (b. 1483)
1564 Michelangelo, Italian sculptor and painter (b. 1475)
1654 Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac, French author (b. 1594)
1836 John Abeel III (born between 1732 and 1746–February 18, 1836), known as Gaiänt'wakê (Gyantwachia - ″the planter″) or Kaiiontwa'kon (Kaintwakon - "By What One Plants") in the Seneca language and thus generally known as Cornplanter, was a Seneca war chief and diplomat of the Wolf clan. As a chief warrior, Cornplanter fought in the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. In both wars, the Seneca and three other Iroquois nations were allied with the British. After the war Cornplanter led negotiations with the United States and was a signatory of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784). He helped gain Iroquois neutrality during the Northwest Indian War.
In the postwar years, Cornplanter worked to learn more about European-American ways and invited Quakers to establish schools in Seneca territory. Disillusioned by his people's poor reaction to European-American society, he had the schools closed and followed his half-brother Handsome Lake's movement returning to the traditional Seneca way and religion. The United States government granted him about 1500 acres of former Seneca territory in Pennsylvania in 1796 for "him and his heirs forever", which became known as the Cornplanter Tract.
1847 Jonathan (“Johnny Appleseed”) Chapman (b. 26 September 1774), American pioneer nurseryman, and missionary for the Church of the New Jerusalem
1890 Adolph Arthur Grossmann, teacher and first executive secretary of the Walther League, in Fairfield, Minnesota (d. 19 February 1941).
1893 Serranus Clinton Hastings, American lawyer and politician, 1st Chief Justice of California (b. 1814)
1900 Clinton L. Merriam, American politician (b. 1824)
1902 Charles Lewis Tiffany, American businessman, founded Tiffany & Co. (b. 1812)
1906 John Batterson Stetson, American businessman, founded the John B. Stetson Company (b. 1830)
1910 Lucy Stanton, American abolitionist (b. 1831)
1933 James J. Corbett, American boxer (b. 1866)
1938 David King Udall, American politician (b. 1851)
1942 Albert Payson Terhune, American author (b. 1872)
1957 Henry Norris Russell, American astronomer (b. 1877)
1966 Robert Rossen, American director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1908)
1967 J. Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist (b. 1904)
1971 David M. Potter, American historian (b. 1910)
1973 Frank Costello, Italian-American mob boss (b. 1891)
1976 Wallace Berman, American painter and illustrator (b. 1926)
1977 Andy Devine, American actor (b. 1905)
1978 Maggie McNamara, American actress (b. 1928)
1981 Jack Northrop, American engineer and businessman, founded the Northrop Corporation (b. 1895)
1989 Mildred Burke, American wrestler (b. 1915)
1993 Kerry Von Erich, American wrestler (b. 1960)
1995 Eddie Gilbert, American wrestler (b. 1961)
1995 Bob Stinson, American guitarist (The Replacements and Static Taxi) (b. 1959)
1997 Emily Hahn, American journalist and author (b. 1905)
1998 Harry Caray, American sportscaster (b. 1914)
1999 Noam Pitlik, American actor and director (b. 1932)
2001 Dale Earnhardt, American race car driver (b. 1951)
2001 Eddie Mathews, American baseball player (b. 1931)
2006 Richard Bright, American actor (b. 1937)
2006 Bill Cowsill, American singer and guitarist (The Cowsills) (b. 1948)
2009 Eleanor Jorden, American scholar and educator (b. 1920)
2011 Victor Martinez, American poet and author (b. 1954)
2012 Matt Lamb, American painter (b. 1932)
2012 Roger Miner, American judge (b. 1934)
2013 Jerry Buss, American chemist and businessman (b. 1933)
2013 B. G. Dyess, American minister and politician (b. 1922)
2013 Damon Harris, American singer (The Temptations) (b. 1950)
2013 Matt Mattox, American dancer and actor (b. 1922)
2013 Martin Zweig, American financier (b. 1942)
2014 Nelson Frazier, Jr., American wrestler and actor (b. 1971)
2014 Gregory Kane, American journalist (b. 1951)
2014 Maria Franziska von Trapp, Austrian-American singer (b. 1914)
Holidays and observances
Christian Feast Day:
Bernadette Soubirous (France)
Colmán of Lindisfarne
Flavian of Constantinople
Simeon of Jerusalem (Western Christianity)
February 18 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Martyrs Leo and Parigorius of Patara in Lycia (c. 258)
Venerable Agapitus the Confessor and Wonderworker, Bishop of Synnada in Phrygia (c. 308-324)
Martyrs Victor, Dorotheus, Theodoulus, and Agrippa, at Synnada in Phrygia Salutaris, who suffered under Licinius (c. 308-324)
Martyr Piulius (Publius), by the sword.
Saint Flavian the Confessor, Archbishop of Constantinople (c. 449)
Saint Leo the Great, Pope of Rome (461) (see also: November 10 - West)
Saint Blaise of Amorion and Mt. Athos (c. 908)
Pre-Schism Western saints
Saints Maximus, Claudius, Praepedigna, Alexander and Cutias, martyrs in Rome who suffered under Diocletian (295) (see also: August 11)
Saints Lucius, Silvanus, Rutulus, Classicus, Secundinus, Fructulus and Maximus, martyrs in North Africa.
Saint Helladius of Toledo, Archbishop of Toledo and Confessor (632)
Saint Colman of Lindisfarne, Bishop of Lindisfarne and Confessor (676)
Saint Ethelina (Eudelme), the patroness of Little Sodbury, now in Gloucestershire in England
Saint Angilbert, Abbot of St. Riquier in the north of France where there were some 300 monks (c. 740-814)
Post-Schism Orthodox saints
Venerable Cosmas, founder of Yakhromsk Monastery, Vladimir (1492)
Saint Nicholas V of Georgia, Catholicos of Georgia (1591)
New martyrs and confessors
New Hieromartyr Alexander Medvedsky, Priest (1932)
New Hieromartyr Vladimir Terentiev, Priest (1933)
New Hieromartyr Benjamin, Hieromonk (1938)
Virgin-martyr Anna (1940)
Yakhromsk Icon of the Mother of God.
Finding of the relics (1961) of New Martyr Irene of Mytilene (1463) (see also: May 12 - Greek)
Commemoration of the New Martyrs who suffered during the “Holy Night” in St. Petersburg (1932)
Repose of Schemamonk Constantine (Cavarnos), spiritual writer (2011)