February 14 Feb 13, 2015 19:45:48 GMT -5
Post by Evon on Feb 13, 2015 19:45:48 GMT -5
Celebrated as Valentine's Day, one of the most widely observed unofficial holidays in which romantic greeting cards and gifts are exchanged.
February 14 is the 45th day of thE year in the Gregorian calendar.
There are 320 days remaining until the end of the year
Days left until elections:
United States Senate elections, 2018:
U.S. Debt Clock: www.usdebtclock.org/
748 Abbasid Revolution: The Hashimi rebels under Abu Muslim Khorasani take Merv, capital of the Umayyad province Khorasan, marking the consolidation of the Abbasid revolt.
Seal with Louis' inscription and effigy
842 Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German languages. The text is significant to both linguists and historians. Linguistically, the text is the oldest document written in a Romance language, and specifically in a form of French. The documents also shed light on a significant period in the history of the Carolingian-Frankish empire. Historians have long used the coexistence of these bilingual documents to illustrate their theory that, by 842, the empire had begun splitting into separate proto-countries and developing with different languages and customs.
1014 Pope Benedict VIII crowns Henry of Bavaria, King of Germany and of Italy, as Holy Roman Emperor.
1076 Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor.
Pogrom of Strasbourg by Emile Schweitzer
1349 Several hundred Jews are burned to death by mobs while the remainder of their population is forcibly removed from the city of Strasbourg. A revolution in 1332 resulted in a broad-based city government with participation of the guilds, and Strasbourg declared itself a free republic. The deadly bubonic plague of 1348 was followed on 14 February 1349 by one of the first and worst pogroms in pre-modern history: over a thousand Jews were publicly burnt to death, with the remainder of the Jewish population being expelled from the city. Until the end of the 18th century, Jews were forbidden to remain in town after 10 pm. The time to leave the city was signalled by a municipal herald blowing the Grüselhorn; A special tax, the Pflastergeld (pavement money), was furthermore to be paid for any horse that a Jew would ride or bring into the city while allowed to.
1400 Richard II dies, most likely from starvation, in Pontefract Castle, on the orders of Henry Bolingbroke.
1556 Thomas Cranmer is declared a heretic.
1778 The United States Flag is formally recognized by a foreign naval vessel for the first time, when French Admiral Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte renders a nine gun salute to USS Ranger, commanded by John Paul Jones.
The Kettle Creek battlefield, 2010
1779 American Revolutionary War: the Battle of Kettle Creek is fought in Georgia.
1779 James Cook is killed by Native Hawaiians near Kealakekua on the Island of Hawaii.
The moonlight Battle off Cape St Vincent, 16 January 1780 by Francis Holman, painted 1780, shows the Santo Domingo exploding, with Rodney's flagship Sandwich in the foreground.
1797 French Revolutionary Wars: Battle of Cape St. Vincent – John Jervis, (later 1st Earl of St Vincent) and Horatio Nelson (later 1st Viscount Nelson) lead the British Royal Navy to victory over a Spanish fleet in action near Gibraltar.
Đorđe Petrović – Karađorđe
1804 Karadjordje leads the First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman Empire.
1831 Ras Marye of Yejju marches into Tigray and defeats and kills Dejazmach Sabagadis in the Battle of Debre Abbay.
1835 The original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, in the Latter Day Saint movement, is formed in Kirtland, Ohio.
1849 In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes the first serving President of the United States to have his photograph taken.
1852 Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children, the first hospital in England to provide in-patient beds specifically for children (The National Children's Hospital in Dublin was founded over 30 years previously in 1821), is founded in London.
1855 Texas is linked by telegraph to the rest of the United States, with the completion of a connection between New Orleans and Marshall, Texas.
1859 Oregon is admitted as the 33rd U.S. state.
Alexander Graham Bell
1876 Alexander Graham Bell applies for a patent for the telephone, as does Elisha Gray.
1879 The War of the Pacific breaks out when Chilean armed forces occupy the Bolivian port city of Antofagasta.
1899 Voting machines are approved by the U.S. Congress for use in federal elections.
Boer militiamen at Spioenkop
1900 Second Boer War: In South Africa, 20,000 British troops invade the Orange Free State.
1903 The United States Department of Commerce and Labor is established (later split into the Department of Commerce and the Department of Labor).
United States Department of Commerce and Labor
1912 Arizona is admitted as the 48th U.S. state.
1912 In Groton, Connecticut, the first diesel-powered submarine is commissioned.
1918 The Soviet Union adopts the Gregorian calendar (on 1 February according to the Julian calendar).
1919 The Polish–Soviet War begins.
1920 The League of Women Voters is founded in Chicago.
1924 The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company changes its name to International Business Machines Corporation (IBM).
Aftermath of the St. Valentine's Day Massacre. Top to bottom: Peter Gusenberg; Albert Weinshank; Adam Heyer; John May; Reinhardt Schwimmer (lying almost out of picture at bottom). At right against wall is James Clark.
1929 Saint Valentine's Day Massacre: Seven people, six of them gangster rivals of Al Capone's gang, are murdered in Chicago, Illinois.
1942 Battle of Pasir Panjang contributes to the fall of Singapore.
1943 World War II: Rostov-on-Don, Russia is liberated.
Hans-Jürgen von Arnim
1943 World War II: Tunisia Campaign -- General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim's Fifth Panzer Army launches a concerted attack against Allied positions in Tunisia.
1944 World War II: Anti-Japanese revolt on Java.
Dresden after the bombing raid
1945 World War II: On the first day of the bombing of Dresden, the British Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces begin fire-bombing Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony.
A memorial plaque in Apolinářská Street
1945 World War II: Navigational error leads to the mistaken bombing of Prague, Czechoslovakia by an American squadron of B-17s assisting in the Soviet's Vistula–Oder Offensive.
1945 World War II: Mostar is liberated by Yugoslav partisans.
President Roosevelt with Abdel Aziz Ibn Saud and William Leahy aboard the Quincy
1945 President Franklin D. Roosevelt meets with King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia aboard the USS Quincy, officially beginning U.S.-Saudi diplomatic relations.
1949 The Knesset (Israeli parliament) convenes for the first time.
1949 The Asbestos Strike begins in Canada. The strike marks the beginning of the Quiet Revolution in Quebec.
1950 Chinese Civil War: The National Revolutionary Army instigates the unsuccessful Battle of Tianquan against the People's Liberation Army.
1956 The XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union begins in Moscow. On the last night of the meeting, Premier Nikita Khrushchev condemns Joseph Stalin's crimes in a secret speech.
1961 Discovery of the chemical elements: Element 103, Lawrencium, is first synthesized at the University of California.
1962 First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy takes television viewers on a tour of the White House.
1970 The iconic live album Live at Leeds by The Who is recorded.
1979 In Kabul, Setami Milli militants kidnap the American ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs who is later killed during a gunfight between his kidnappers and police.
1981 Stardust Disaster: A fire in a Dublin nightclub kills 48 people
1983 United American Bank of Knoxville, Tennessee collapses. Its president, Jake Butcher, is later convicted of fraud.
Bhopal memorial for those killed and disabled by the 1984 toxic gas release
1989 Union Carbide agrees to pay $470 million to the Indian government for damages it caused in the 1984 Bhopal disaster.
1989 Iranian leader Ruhollah Khomeini issues a fatwa encouraging Muslims to kill Salman Rushdie, author of The Satanic Verses.
An Indian Airlines Airbus A320 similar to the one involved in an accident
1990 Ninety-two people are killed aboard Indian Airlines Flight 605 at Bangalore, India.
Seen from about 6 billion kilometers, Earth appears as a tiny dot (the blueish-white speck approximately halfway down the brown band to the right) within the darkness of deep space
1990 The Voyager 1 spacecraft takes the photograph of planet Earth later become famous as Pale Blue Dot.
1998 An oil tanker train collides with a freight train in Yaoundé, Cameroon, spilling fuel oil. One person scavenging the oil created a massive explosion which kills 120.
2000 The spacecraft NEAR Shoemaker enters orbit around asteroid 433 Eros, the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid.
2004 In a suburb of Moscow, Russia, the roof of the Transvaal water park collapses, killing more than 25 people, and wounding more than 100 others.
2005 Lebanese self-made billionaire and business tycoon Rafik Hariri is killed, along with 21 others, when explosives, equivalent of around 1,000 kg of TNT, are detonated as his motorcade drove near the St. George Hotel in Beirut.
2005 Seven people are killed and 151 wounded in a series of bombings by suspected al-Qaeda-linked militants that hit the Philippines' Makati financial district in Metro Manila, Davao City, and General Santos City.
2005 YouTube is launched by a group of college students, eventually becoming the largest video sharing website in the world and a main source for viral videos.
2008 Northern Illinois University shooting: A gunman opened fire in a lecture hall of the DeKalb County, Illinois university resulting in six fatalities (including gunman) and 21 injuries.
2011 As a part of Arab Spring, the Bahraini uprising, a series of demonstrations, amounting to a sustained campaign of civil resistance, in the Persian Gulf country of Bahrain begins with a 'Day of Rage'.
1468 Johannes Werner, German priest and mathematician (d. 1522)
1483 Babur, Moghul emperor (d. 1530)
1800 Emory Washburn, American historian, lawyer, and politician, 22nd Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1877)
1812 Alfred Thomas Agate, American painter (d. 1846)
1818 Frederick Douglass, American author and activist (d. 1895)
1819 Christopher Latham Sholes, American journalist and politician, invented the first practical typewriter and the QWERTY keyboard still in use today. He was also a newspaper publisher and Wisconsin politician. (d. 1890)
1824 Winfield Scott Hancock, American general (d. 1886)
1838 Margaret E. Knight, American inventor, notably of the flat-bottomed paper bag. She has been called "the most famous 19th-century woman inventor". (d 1914)
1846 Julian Scott, American soldier and drummer, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 1901)
1847 Anna Howard Shaw, American physician, minister, and activist (d. 1919)
1859 George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr., American engineer, inventor of the Ferris wheel (d. 1896)
1874 Louis Handley, Italian-American swimmer and water polo player (d. 1956)
1882 John Barrymore, American actor (d. 1942)
1894 Jack Benny, American actor and comedian (d. 1974)
1898 Fritz Zwicky, Swiss-American physicist and astronomer (d. 1974)
1903 Stuart Erwin, American actor (d. 1967)
1905 Thelma Ritter, American actress (d. 1969)
1913 Mel Allen, American journalist (d. 1996)
1913 Woody Hayes, American football player and coach (d. 1987)
1913 Jimmy Hoffa, American union leader (d. 1975)
1913 James Pike, American bishop (d. 1969)
1916 Edward Platt, American actor (d. 1974)
1917 Herbert A. Hauptman, American mathematician, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2011)
1921 Hugh Downs, American journalist, game show host, and producer
1922 Murray the K, American radio host (d. 1982)
1927 Jerry Wolman, American businessman (d. 2013)
1928 William Allain, American soldier and politician, 58th Governor of Mississippi (d. 2013)
1928 Vicente T. Blaz, American general and politician (d. 2014)
1928 Benjamin Purcell, American colonel and politician (d. 2013)
1929 Vic Morrow, American actor and director (d. 1982)
1931 Brian Kelly, American actor (d. 2005)
1933 Tom Borland, American baseball player (d. 2013)
1934 Florence Henderson, American actress and singer
1936 Fanne Foxe, Argentine-American stripper
1936 Andrew Prine, American actor
1937 Magic Sam, American singer and guitarist (d. 1969)
1938 Lee Chamberlin, American actress (d. 2014)
1939 Eugene Fama, American economist
1939 Michael Rudman, American director and producer
1940 James Maynard, American businessman, co-founded Golden Corral
1941 Donna Shalala, American academic, 18th United States Secretary of Health and Human Services
1941 Paul Tsongas, American politician (d. 1997)
1942 Michael Bloomberg, American businessman and politician, 108th Mayor of New York City
1942 Andrew Robinson, American actor
1943 Eric Andersen, American singer-songwriter
1943 Maceo Parker, American saxophonist (Parliament-Funkadelic, The J.B.'s, and The Horny Horns)
1943 Aaron Russo, American director and producer (d. 2007)
1944 Carl Bernstein, American journalist
1946 Gregory Hines, American actor, singer, and dancer (d. 2003)
1946 Tina Aumont, American actress (d. 2006)
1947 Tim Buckley, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1975)
1947 Judd Gregg, American politician, 76th Governor of New Hampshire
1948 Teller, American magician and actor
1948 Kitten Natividad, Mexican-American actress and dancer
1948 Pat O'Brien, American sportscaster
1950 Frank Collison, American actor
1950 Roger Fisher, American guitarist (Heart and Alias)
1951 Terry Gross, American radio host and producer
1951 JoJo Starbuck, American ice skater
1952 Nancy Keenan, American activist
1953 Odds Bodkin, American author
1955 James Eckhouse, American actor
1955 Carol Kalish, American publisher (d. 1991)
1955 Billy Milligan, American criminal (d. 2014)
1956 Dave Dravecky, American baseball player
1957 Alan Hunter, American television host and actor
1957 Alan Smith, English bishop
1959 Renée Fleming, American soprano
1960 Jim Kelly, American football player
1960 Meg Tilly, American actress
1961 Anthony J. Bryant, American historian and author (d. 2013)
1961 Phillip Hamilton, American author
1962 Kevyn Aucoin, American make up artist and photographer (d. 2002)
1962 Sakina Jaffrey, American-Indian actress
1963 John Marzano, American baseball player (d. 2008)
1964 Zach Galligan, American actor
1968 Jules Asner, American model
1968 Scott McClellan, American civil servant and author, 25th White House Press Secretary
1969 Harry Colon, American football player
1970 Sean Hill, American ice hockey player
1971 Tommy Dreamer, American wrestler and actor
1971 Nelson Frazier, Jr., American wrestler and actor (d. 2014)
1972 Drew Bledsoe, American football player
1972 Rob Thomas, American singer-songwriter (Matchbox Twenty and Tabitha's Secret)
1973 Tyus Edney, American basketball player
1973 Steve McNair, American football player (d. 2009)
1975 Yul Kwon, American lawyer and television host
1976 Erica Leerhsen, American actress
1978 Dwele, American singer-songwriter and producer
1978 Danai Gurira, Zimbabwean-American actress and playwright
1978 Richard Hamilton, American basketball player
1980 Josh Senter, American screenwriter and producer
1981 Brad Halsey, American baseball player (d. 2014)
1981 Erin Torpey, American actress and singer
1985 Tyler Clippard, American baseball player
1986 Cody Austin Deal American actor in film and television. He is best known for his role as Thor in the Syfy Original Movie Almighty Thor. He starred alongside Richard Grieco, Patricia Velasquez, and Kevin Nash. He is the son of Diane Boulanger and has a twin brother named Kyle and an older brother named Lucas. Deal grew up in Sedan, Kansas and is Osage.
1986 Tiffany Thornton, American actress and singer
1987 Joe Pichler, American actor
1988 Asia Nitollano, American singer and dancer (The Pussycat Dolls)
1989 Callan Chythlook-Sifsof (born February 14, 1989) American snowboarder who has competed in snowboard cross since 2005. In 2006, she was invited to her first Winter X Games competition. Her best World Cup finish was second in a snowboard cross event in Arosa, Switzerland. She won the U.S. National Championships in Tamarack, Idaho in 2007. 2008 brought her to the Jeep King of the Mountain series where she captured the Woman's Title. She was the silver medalist in the Winter X-Games in 2011 in Aspen, Colorado. It was announced on January 26, 2010 that Chythlook-Sifsof made the U.S. team for the 2010 Winter Olympics. She is the first Indigenous Alaskan to make a United States Team and Olympic Team.
1993 Shane Harper, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor
1994 Paul Butcher, American actor
269 Saint Valentine, Roman bishop and martyr
869 Saint Cyril, Greek monk, scholar, and linguist (b. 827)
1166 Abdul-Qadir Gilani, Muslim scholar (b. 1078)
1317 Margaret of France, Queen of England (b. 1282)
1400 Richard II of England (b. 1367)
1571 Odet de Coligny, French cardinal (b. 1517)
1808 John Dickinson, English-American lawyer and politician 5th Governor of Delaware (b. 1732)
1870 St. John Richardson Liddell, American general (b. 1815)
1881 Fernando Wood, American politician, 73rd Mayor of New York City (b. 1812)
1884 Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt, American wife of Theodore Roosevelt (b. 1861)
1891 William Tecumseh Sherman, American general (b. 1820)
1929 Thomas Burke, American sprinter (b. 1875)
1929 Frank Gusenberg, American gangster (b. 1892)
1929 Peter Gusenberg, American gangster (b. 1889)
1948 Mordecai Brown, American baseball player (b. 1876)
1950 Karl Guthe Jansky, American physicist and engineer (b. 1905)
1959 Baby Dodds, American drummer (b. 1898)
1967 Sig Ruman, German-American actor (b. 1884)
1969 Vito Genovese, Italian-American mobster (b. 1897)
1978 Paul Governali, American football player (b. 1921)
1979 Adolph Dubs, American diplomat, United States Ambassador to Afghanistan (b. 1920)
1989 James Bond, American ornithologist (b. 1900)
1994 Christopher Lasch, American historian and critic (b. 1932)
1994 Rodney Orr, American race car driver (b. 1962)
1995 Michael V. Gazzo, American actor and playwright (b. 1923)
1999 John Ehrlichman, American lawyer, 12th White House Counsel (b. 1925)
1999 Buddy Knox, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1933)
2003 Dolly, Scottish sheep (b. 1996)
2005 Najai Turpin, American boxer (b. 1981)
2009 Louie Bellson, American drummer and composer (b. 1924)
2009 John McGlinn, American conductor (b. 1953)
2010 Doug Fieger, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (The Knack and Sky) (b. 1952)
2011 George Shearing, English-American pianist (b. 1919)
2012 Dory Previn, American singer-songwriter (b. 1925)
2013 Glenn Boyer, American historian and author (b. 1924)
2013 Richard J. Collins, American screenwriter and producer (b. 1914)
2013 Ronald Dworkin, American philosopher and scholar (b. 1931)
2013 Mark Kamins, American radio host and producer (b. 1955)
2013 Shadow Morton, American songwriter and producer (b. 1940)
2013 T. L. Osborn, American Pentecostal evangelist and author based in Tulsa, Oklahoma (b. 1923)
2014 George Anastaplo, American philosopher, author, and academic (b. 1925)
2014 Jim Fregosi, American baseball player and manager (b. 1942)
2014 John Henson, American puppeteer and voice actor (b. 1965)
2014 Mike Stepovich, American lawyer and politician, Governor of Alaska Territory (b. 1919)
2014 Edward J. Walsh, American journalist (b. 1942)
Holidays and observances
Christian Feast Day:
Cyril and Methodius, patron saints of Europe (Roman Catholic Church)
February 14 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Saint Peter II, Patriarch of Alexandria (380)
Venerable Maron of Syria, hermit of Cyrrhus (c. 433)
Venerable Auxentius of Bithynia, monastic (c. 470)
Saint Abraham of Charres, Bishop of Charres in Mesopotamia (5th century)
Saint Cyril, Equal-to-the-Apostles, Teacher of the Slavs (869)
Hieromartyr Philemon of Gaza, Bishop of Gaza (10th century).
Pre-Schism Western saints
Saint Eleuchadius, a Greek, converted by St Apollinaris of Ravenna in Italy, and succeeded St Adheritus as third Bishop of that city (112)
Martyrs Vitalis, Felicula and Zeno, early martyrs in Rome.
Saint Valentine the Presbyter of Rome, under Claudius II (c. 270) (see also: July 6)
Hieromartyr Valentine, Bishop of Interamna, Terni, in Italy (c. 273) (see also: July 30)
Martyrs Proculus, Ephebus and Apollonius, disciples of Hieromartyr Valentine, Bishop of Interamna, Terni, in Italy (c. 273)
Martyrs Bassus, Anthony, and Protolicus, at Alexandria.
Martyr Agatho, Priest, and Companions, at Alexandria.
Saint Nostrianus, Bishop of Naples in Italy and a valiant opponent of Arianism and Pelagianism (c. 450)
Saint Theodosius, Bishop of Vaison in France and predecessor of St Quinidius (554)
Saint Conran, a holy bishop of the Orkney Islands.
Saint Antoninus of Sorrento, a monk in one of the daughter monasteries of Monte Cassino in Italy, became Abbot of St Agrippinus (830)
Post-Schism Orthodox saints
Venerable Isaac, recluse of the Kiev Caves Monastery (c. 1090)
New Martyr Nicholas of Corinth (1554)
New Monk-martyr Damian of Philotheou and Kissavos, at Larissa (1568)
New Martyr George the Tailor, of Mytilene, at Constantinople (1693)
Venerable Auxentios the Ascetic, of Mount Katirlion near Nicomedia on the Propontis, Wonderworker (c. 1757)
Saint Hilarion the Georgian (the New) of Imereti and Mt. Athos (1864)
Saint Raphael (Hawaweeny), Bishop of Brooklyn (1915) (see also: February 27 )
New martyrs and confessors
New Hieromartyr Nikolaos of Trebizond, Bishop of Amisos (1920)
New Hieromartyr Onesimus (Pylaev), Bishop of Tula (1937)
New Hieromartyr Tryphon, Deacon (1938)
12 Greeks who built the Dormition Cathedral in the Kiev Caves, Far Caves, Lavra (11th century)
Translation of the relics of Martyrs Prince Michael and his counselor Theodore, of Chernigov (1578)
Repose of Archimandrite Barsanuphius of Valaam and Morocco (1952)
Repose of Righteous Barbara (Arkhangelskaya) the Recluse, of Ufa (1966)
Repose of Elder Ephraim of Katounakia (1998)
Valentine's Day (International)