February 11 Feb 11, 2015 0:33:30 GMT -5
Post by Evon on Feb 11, 2015 0:33:30 GMT -5
February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar.
There are 323 days remaining until the end of the year
Days left until elections:
U.S. Debt Clock: www.usdebtclock.org/
55 Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus, heir to the Roman emperorship, dies under mysterious circumstances in Rome. This clears the way for Nero to become Emperor.
244 Emperor Gordian III is murdered by mutinous soldiers in Zaitha (Mesopotamia). A mound is raised at Carchemish in his memory.
1531 Henry VIII of England is recognized as supreme head of the Church of England.
Ruins of Susenyos' Palace at Dankaz
1626 Emperor Susenyos I of Ethiopia and Patriarch Afonso Mendes declare the primacy of the Roman See over the Ethiopian Church, and Roman Catholicism the state religion of Ethiopia.
1638 Swedish Lutherans arrived on the Delaware River. New Sweden was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of Delaware River in North America from 1638 to 1655 in the present-day American Mid-Atlantic states of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Fort Christina, now in Wilmington, Delaware, was the first settlement. Along with Swedes and Finns, a number of the settlers were Dutch. New Sweden was conquered by the Dutch in 1655, during the Second Northern War, and incorporated into New Netherland.
The original building of Pennsylvania Hospital in 2013, as seen from Pine Street.
1752 First hospital in the US, opened. In 1752, the Pennsylvania Hospital, the first in America, opened in Philadelphia through the indefatigible efforts of Benjamin Franklin, who was involved in drafting the petition for its establishment and fund-raising. It was established on May 11, 1751, when the colonial governor of Pennsylvania approved its charter as a proposed hospital to include treatment of people with mental illness. The first patient was received on February 11, 1752, at the hospital's temporary quarters in the Judge Kinsey mansion on Market St.
Symbol used by Friends' service organizations since the late 19th century
1790 The Religious Society of Friends, also known as Quakers, petitions U.S. Congress for abolition of slavery.
1794 First session of United States Senate opens to the public. From 1789 through 1794, all Senate proceedings were held in secret. Public pressure led to a reversal of that practice for legislative deliberations. Backed by the state legislatures, reporters gained admittance in 1794, and received gallery space the following year. Once inside the chamber, however, reporters had little patience for the Senate's careful deliberations. Instead, they preferred the livelier, more combative House, and only occasionally covered the Senate.
1808 Jesse Fell burns anthracite on an open grate as an experiment in heating homes with coal.
1812 Massachusetts governor Elbridge Gerry "gerrymanders" for the first time.
1826 Swaminarayan writes the Shikshapatri, an important text within Swaminarayan Hinduism.
1826 University College London is founded under the name University of London.
1858 Bernadette Soubirous's first vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Lourdes, France.
1861 American Civil War: United States House of Representatives unanimously passes a resolution guaranteeing noninterference with slavery in any state.
1881 Concordia College (Conover, North Carolina) was chartered.
1889 The Meiji Constitution guaranteed religious liberty in Japan.
1906 Pope Pius X publishes the encyclical Vehementer Nos. Vehementer Nos was a papal encyclical promulgated by Pope Pius X on February 11, 1906. Occasioned by the French law of 1905 providing for the separation of church and state, it denounced the proposition that the state should be separated from the Church as "a thesis absolutely false, a most pernicious error".
1916 Emma Goldman is arrested for lecturing on birth control.
1922 "April Showers" by Al Jolson hits #1
1929 Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican sign the Lateran Treaty. The Vatican City was created as an independent sovereign state within Rome, Italy. The Lateran Treaty was signed by Mussolini and the Holy See to effect such sovereignty. At a mere 109 acres, it became the smallest nation in the world.
The story of the papacy in the 1800s was a story of riches to rags. When Pope Pius IX was crowned in 1846, the church owned the Papal States (17,000 square miles of Italian territory) as well as parts of Rome. When Pius IX died, he was a "Prisoner of the Vatican," and the Papal lands were gone.
For over a thousand years the church had been the biggest landlord in Italy. Under a good administrator like Gregory the Great, lands were well managed and the peasants cared for. Under other Popes, conditions were different. With the land came oppression of the peasants, abuse of power (prisons in the Papal States held thousands of political prisoners), and an unhealthy meddling by the church in Italian politics. Popes like Julius II are remembered as warriors rather than as pastors. Others, like Pius IX faced serious dilemmas brought on by their ownership of lands: should they exercise military force against other Catholics?
In Pius IX's case, his refusal to send troops from the papal states to fight the Catholic Austrians who held parts of Italy, showed how difficult it was to balance moral imperatives with political necessity. When Italy lost its war against Austria, mobs turned against the Pope. He fled to the Kingdom of Naples.
On February 9, 1849, the Italians declared a Republic, headed by the revolutionary leader Giuseppe Mazzini. After various shifts of control, Italy completed the takeover of papal lands in 1870. The newly consolidated Italian nation renounced the Vatican's status as a separate nation. It is arguable that the loss of lands was good for the church. Deprived of lands, papal leaders could, and to a large extent did, concentrate more on spiritual and moral issues. The Vatican, which had always dealt directly with foreign powers, continued to receive foreign ambassadors.
An uneasy coexistence existed between church and state. But the Italian government seemed sometimes to be just waiting for an excuse to pounce upon Vatican City and impose police rule. As a case in point, when Leo XIII was crowned, the secular authorities made it clear they would not protect the Vatican from riots. They allowed hoodlums to smash the windows of any house which showed lights in celebration of the new Pope.
In 1929, however, Mussolini needed the support of Catholics if he was consolidate his power base. He sought an agreement with the church. Under it Italy recognized the Sovereign status of the Vatican. On this day, February 11, 1929, with 109 acres, Vatican City became the smallest nation in the world. It was placed completely under the jursidiction of the pope. The Italian authorities agreed not to interfere any longer in the Vatican's internal affairs.
During World War II, the independence of the Vatican was a blessing to Jewish and allied fugitives. Acting covertly from the Vatican, church agents rescued many who would otherwise have perished. Today, its independence allows the Vatican to negotiate with the nations and religions of the world. It even retains observer status at the United Nations.
1937 A sit-down strike ends when General Motors recognizes the United Auto Workers.
1938 BBC Television produces the world's first ever science fiction television program, an adaptation of a section of the Karel Čapek play R.U.R., that coined the term "robot".
1939 A Lockheed P-38 Lightning flies from California to New York in 7 hours 2 minutes.
Japanese soldiers in Bukit Timah
1942 World War II: The Battle of Bukit Timah is fought in Singapore.
1942 "Archie" comic book debuts
1943 World War II: General Dwight D. Eisenhower is selected to command the allied armies in Europe.
1948 U.S. Senate Chaplain Peter Marshall prayed: 'We ask Thee not for tasks more suited to our strength, but for strength more suited to our tasks.'
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
1953 U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower refuses a clemency appeal for Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
1953 The Soviet Union breaks off diplomatic relations with Israel.
1959 The Federation of Arab Emirates of the South, which will later become South Yemen, is created as a protectorate of the United Kingdom.
1968 Israeli-Jordanian border clashes rage.
1968 The Memphis Sanitation Strike begins.
1971 Eighty-seven countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union, sign the Seabed Arms Control Treaty outlawing nuclear weapons on the ocean floor in international waters.
1973 Vietnam War: First release of American prisoners of war from Vietnam takes place.
1978 Censorship: China lifts a ban on works by Aristotle, William Shakespeare and Charles Dickens.
1979 The Iranian Revolution establishes an Islamic theocracy under the leadership of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
Sequoyah Nuclear Plant
1981 Around 100,000 US gallons (380 m3) of radioactive coolant leak into the containment building of TVA Sequoyah 1 nuclear plant in Tennessee, contaminating eight workers.
1989 Rev. Barbara C. Harris, 58, was consecrated in Boston as the first woman bishop in the Anglican Church. (In 1988 the Church of England passed the first legislation which began opening the Anglican priesthood to women.)
1990 Nelson Mandela is released from Victor Verster Prison outside Cape Town, South Africa after 27 years as a political prisoner.
1990 Buster Douglas, a 40:1 underdog, knocks out Mike Tyson in ten rounds at Tokyo to win boxing's world Heavyweight title and cause one of the largest upsets in sports history.
1997 Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on a mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope.
2011 The first wave of the Egyptian revolution culminates in the resignation of Hosni Mubarak and the transfer of power to the Supreme Military Council after 18 days of protests.
2013 Pope Benedict XVI announces his resignation from the papacy, the first pontiff to resign in more than half a millennium.
2014 A military transport plane crashes in a mountainous area of Oum El Bouaghi Province in eastern Algeria, killing 77 people.
1466 Elizabeth of York (d. 1503)
1535 Pope Gregory XIV [Niccolò Sfondrati], Roman Catholic pope (1590-91) (d. 1591)
1739 Jacob van Buskirk, probably the first American-born Lutheran pastor, in Hackensack, New Jersey (d. 5 August 1800).
1783 Jarena Lee, African-American woman who left behind an eloquent account of her religious experience. The publishing of her autobiography made Lee the first African American woman to have an autobiography published in the United States. She was also the first woman authorized to preach by Richard Allen, founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1819. Despite Allen's blessing, Lee continued to face hostility to her ministry because she was black and a woman. She became a traveling minister, traveling thousands of miles on foot. In one year alone, she "travelled two thousand three hundred and twenty-five miles, and preached one hundred and seventy-eight sermons." Lee’s importance is threefold. First, she exemplifies the 19th-century American religious movement’s focus on personal holiness and sanctification. Second, she left a detailed account of her life of faith that serves as a valuable primary source. Third, she became an eloquent witness to her faith and a pioneer for women seeking license to preach in the Methodist traditions.
1799 Basil Moreau, French priest who founded the Congregation of Holy Cross from which three additional congregations were founded, namely the Marianites of Holy Cross, the Sisters of the Holy Cross and the Sisters of Holy Cross, (d. 20 January 1873).
1802 Lydia Maria Child, American journalist, author, and abolitionist, women's rights activist, opponent of American expansionism, Indian rights activist, novelist, and. (Juvenile Miscellany) (d. 1880)
1805 Jean Baptiste Charbonneau (February 11, 1805 – May 16, 1866) American Indian-French Canadian explorer, guide, fur trapper trader, military scout during the Mexican-American War, alcalde (mayor) of Mission San Luis Rey de Francia and a gold prospector and hotel operator in Northern California. He spoke French and English and learned German and Spanish during his six years in Europe from 1823 to 1829. He spoke Shoshone, his mother tongue, and other western American Indian languages, which he picked up during his years of trapping and guiding.
1812 Alexander H. Stephens, American politician, Vice President of the Confederate States of America (d. 1883)
1812 Benjamin Franklin Sands Commander (Union Navy), died in 1883
1819 Samuel Parkman Tuckerman, American organist and composer (d. 1890)
1821 Charles Augustus Hay, president of the General Synod, was born in York, Pennsylvania (d. 26 June 1893).
1829 William Anderson Pile Brevet Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1889
1833 Melville Fuller, American jurist, 8th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1910)
1836 Washington Gladden, a leading American Congregational church pastor and early leader of the Social Gospel movement, in Pottsgrove, Pennsylvania (d. 2 July 1918).
1839 Josiah Willard Gibbs, American physicist (d. 1903)
1839 Sanuel Dana Greene Lieutenant Commander (Union Navy), mostly noted for his service aboard the USS Monitor during the Battle of Hampton Roads, died in 1884
1847 Thomas Edison, American businessman, invented the light bulb and phonograph (d. 1931)
1855 Ellen Day Hale,American painter (d. 1940)
1871 Hugh Thomson Kerr, Canadian-born American Presbyterian clergyman, in Elora, Ontario (d. 27 June 1950).
1898 Leó Szilárd, Hungarian-American physicist (d. 1964)
1903 Rex Lease West Virginia, actor (Fast Bullets, Sunny Skies, Custer's Last Stand)
1904 Henry R LaBouisse, American diplomat and statesman. He was the third Director of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) from 1954 to 1958. He was the director of the United Nations Children's Fund for fifteen years (1965–1979). He was also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. A lawyer, he was United States Ambassador to France 1952-1954, as well as U.S. United States Ambassador to Greece 1962-1965. Labouisse had been the principal United States Department of State official dealing with the implementation of the Marshall Plan.
1908 Philip Dunne, American director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 1992)
1909 Max Baer [The Livermore Larruper] Omaha NB, heavyweight boxing champion (1934-35)/actor (The Prizefighter and the Lady) (d 1959)
1909 Joseph L. Mankiewicz, American director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 1993)
1912 Rudolf Firkušný, Czech-American pianist (d. 1994)
1914 Matt Dennis, American singer-songwriter and pianist (d. 2002)
1915 Pat Welsh, American actress (d. 1995)
1917 Sidney Sheldon, American author (d. 2007)
1919 Eva Gabor, Hungarian-American actress (d. 1995)
1920 Boyd Bartley, American baseball player (d. 2012)
1920 Daniel F. Galouye, American author (d. 1976)
1920 Billy Halop, American actor (d. 1976)
1920 Daniel James, Jr., American pilot and general (d. 1978)
1921 Lloyd Bentsen, American politician, 69th United States Secretary of the Treasury (d. 2006)
1921 Edward Seidensticker, American scholar and translator (d. 2007)
1925 Virginia E. Johnson, American psychologist (d. 2013)
1925 Kim Stanley, American actress (d. 2001)
1926 Leslie Nielsen, Canadian-American actor, singer, and producer (d. 2010)
1928 Hattie N. Harrison, American educator and politician (d. 2013)
1930 Roy De Forest, American painter (d. 2007)
1931 Larry Merchant, American journalist
1932 Jerome Lowenthal, American pianist
1934 Mel Carnahan, American politician, 51st Governor of Missouri (d. 2000)
1934 Tina Louise, American actress and singer
1935 Gene Vincent, American singer and guitarist (d. 1971)
1936 Burt Reynolds, American actor and director
1937 Phillip Walker, American singer and guitarist (d. 2010)
1938 Bobby Pickett, American singer-songwriter (d. 2007)
1939 Gerry Goffin, American songwriter (d. 2014)
1939 Jane Yolen, American author
1940 Mick Staton, American soldier and politician (d. 2014)
1943 Stan Szelest American keyboard player (The Band) (d. 1991)
1943 Alan Rubin, American musician (d. 2011)
1946 Chris Rush, American comedian, actor, and author
1947 Roy Carrier, American accordion player (d. 2010)
1948 Al Johnson, American singer-songwriter and producer (The Unifics) (d. 2013)
1953 Philip Anglim, American actor
1953 Jeb Bush, American politician, 43rd Governor of Florida
1953 Tom Veryzer, American baseball player (d. 2014)
1954 Wesley Strick, American screenwriter
1956 H.R., American singer and guitarist (Bad Brains)
1956 Catherine Hickland, American actress and singer
1956 Deena Freeman Palo Alto CA, actress (April-Too Close For Comfort)
1959 Bradley Cole, American actor
1960 Richard Mastracchio, American engineer and astronaut
1961 Mary Docter, American speed skater
1961 Carey Lowell, American actress
1962 Tammy Baldwin, American politician
1962 Sheryl Crow, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actress
1963 Diane Franklin, American actress
1963 Dan Osman, Japanese-American rock climber (d. 1998)
1964 Sarah Palin, American politician, 9th Governor of Alaska
1964 Ken Shamrock, American martial artist and wrestler
1967 Hank Gathers, American basketball player (d. 1990)
1967 Ty Treadway, American actor and talk show host
1968 Mo Willems, American author
1969 Jennifer Aniston, American actress, director, and producer
1971 Evan Tanner, American mixed martial artist (d. 2008)
1971 Linda Wild, American tennis player
1972 Brian Daubach, American baseball player
1972 Craig Jones, American keyboard player (Slipknot)
1972 Kelly Slater, American surfer
1973 Shawn Hernandez, American wrestler
1973 Ethan Iverson, American pianist and composer (The Bad Plus)
1974 D'Angelo, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Soulquarians)
1974 Alex Jones, American radio host and author
1974 Isaiah Mustafa, American football player and actor
1974 Zain Verjee, American journalist
1975 Andy Lally, American race car driver
1975 Jacque Vaughn, American basketball player
1976 Tony Battie, American basketball player
1976 Brice Beckham, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
1976 Peter Hayes, American singer and guitarist (Black Rebel Motorcycle Club)
1977 Mike Shinoda, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Linkin Park and Fort Minor)
1979 Brandy Norwood, American singer-songwriter, producer, and actress
1980 Matthew Lawrence, American actor
1981 Kelly Rowland, American singer-songwriter, dancer, and actress (Destiny's Child)
1981 Scot Thompson, American soccer player
1983 Tony Curtis, American football player
1985 William Beckett, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (The Academy Is...)
1987 Brian Matusz, American baseball player
1991 Sierra Deaton, American singer
1992 Taylor Lautner, American actor and martial artist
1994 Dominic Janes, American actor
2003 Jazil, American race horse (d. 2014)
2005 Recapturetheglory, American race horse
731 Pope Gregory II (b. 669)
Pope Paschal the I holding the Church of Santa Prassede, wearing a zuchetto and pallium. Mosaic portrait at Church of Saint Praxedis, Rome.
824 Pope Paschal I
1141 Hugh of Saint-Victor, German philosopher and theologian whose eloquence and writings earned him fame and influence that far exceeded St Bernard’s and that held its ground until the advent of the Thomist philosophy (b. ca. 1096).
A portrait of Elizabeth is thought to be the basis for the queen's picture found in a deck of cards.
1503 Elizabeth of York (b. 1466)
1586 Elector August of Saxony, a Lutheran who was caught up in the Crypto-Calvinistic controversy, (b. 31 July 1526).
1650René Descartes, 53, French philosopher and mathematician. His last words were: 'My soul, thou hast long been held captive; the hour has now come for thee to quit thy prison...; suffer, then, this separation with joy and courage.'
1831 George Dana Boardman Sr., Baptist missionary to India, (b. 8 February 1801).
1940 Ellen Day Hale, American painter (b. 1855)
1945 Al Dubin, Swiss-American songwriter (b. 1891)
1954 Adolph M. Christianson, Norwegian-American jurist (b. 1877)
1959 Marshall Teague, American race car driver (b. 1922)
1963 John Olof Dahlgren, Swedish-American soldier, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1872)
1963 Sylvia Plath, American author and poet (b. 1932)
1967 A. J. Muste, Dutch-American clergyman and activist (b. 1885)
1968 Howard Lindsay, American playwright (b. 1888)
1976 Lee J. Cobb, American actor (b. 1911)
1976 Dorothy Maud Wrinch (b 12 September 1894; married names Nicholson, Glaser) mathematician and biochemical theorist best known for her attempt to deduce protein structure using mathematical principles.
1978 James Bryant Conant, American chemist, academic, and diplomat, 1st United States Ambassador to West Germany (b. 1893)
1982 Eleanor Powell, American actress and dancer (b. 1912)
1985 Ben Abruzzo, American balloonist (b. 1930)
1985 Henry Hathaway, American actor, director, and producer (b. 1898)
1985 Heinz Eric Roemheld, American composer (b. 1901)
1986 Frank Herbert, American author (b. 1920)
1989 George O'Hanlon, American actor and director (b. 1912)
1993 Robert W. Holley, American biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1922)
1993 George A. Stephen, American businessman, founded Weber-Stephen Products (b. 1922)
1994 Neil Bonnett, American race car driver (b. 1946)
1994 Sorrell Booke, American actor (b. 1930)
1994 William Conrad, American actor, director, and producer (b. 1920)
1996 Bob Shaw, Irish author (b. 1931)
1997 Don Porter, American actor (b. 1912)
2002 Frankie Crosetti, American baseball player (b. 1910)
2003 Moses Hogan, American pianist and composer (b. 1957)
2004 Tony Pope, American voice actor (b. 1947)
2005 Jack L. Chalker, American author (b. 1944)
2006 Peter Benchley, American author (b. 1940)
2008 Tom Lantos, American politician (b. 1928)
2008 Frank Piasecki, American engineer (b. 1919)
2009 Estelle Bennett, American singer (The Ronettes) (b. 1941)
2010 Caroline McWilliams, American actress (b. 1945)
2011 Tom Carnegie, American sportscaster (b. 1919)
2011 Chuck Tanner, American baseball player (b. 1928)
2012 Gene Crumling, American baseball player (b. 1922)
2012 Whitney Houston, American singer-songwriter, producer, and actress (b. 1963)
2013 Tom Aspell, New Zealand-American journalist and producer (b. 1950)
2013 Jim Boatwright, American basketball player and coach (b. 1952)
2013 Kevin Gray, American actor (b. 1958)
2013 Matthew White, American basketball player (b. 1957)
2014 Emory Williams, American businessman (b. 1911)
Holidays and observances
Christian feast day:
Benedict of Aniane
Cædmon, first recorded Christian Poet in England, circa 680 CE (Anglicanism). Have you ever felt you didn't fit? Everyone else had a bike but you didn't...everyone else seemed able to work the Rubik's cube but you couldn't...everyone else could pray out loud but you were too afraid...you were always the last chosen when team players were picked...
That is how it was for Caedmon. He was a stable-hand at the monastery of Whitby in the seventh century. The Anglo-Saxons loved singing. It was common for men to gather of an evening and share tales through song. Everyone was expected to contribute. Caedmon, however, slipped away because he was either too shy to sing or simply had nothing to share.
According to the church historian Bede, who was born about seven years before Caedmon died, Caedmon slipped out of the hall one night to tend the animals while the others sang. Afterward, he fell asleep. A man spoke to him in a vision, saying, "Caedmon, sing me something." Caedmon replied that he could not sing. That was why he was out here, not in the hall. "Yet you could sing," said the man, and suggested Caedmon sing "the beginning of all things." In his dream, Caedmon began to sing his great Hymn of Creation:
Now let us praise the guardian of the heavenly kingdom,
the power of the Creator
and the counsel of His mind,
the works of the Father of glory:
how He, the eternal Lord, originated every marvel...
When Caedmon awoke, he found he remembered the verses perfectly and was able to sing them. The monks were convinced he had been given a gift by God. Whitby's famous abbess, Hild (Hilda) convinced Caedmon to become a monk.
Although he never learned to read or write, Caedmon listened as the monks told the Bible stories and then he turned them into Anglo-Saxon poems that the common folk could understand. Many others imitated him in this, with the result that Bible teaching found its way to the people as it had never done before in England.
Caedmon was the first poet to produce vivid Christian verses in the Anglo-Saxon tongue. Unfortunately, only a few of his lines survive. He died around 680. The people of England remembered him as a saint. His feast is on this day, February 11.
Fanny Crosby (Episcopal Church (USA))
February 11 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Hieromartyr Blaise, Bishop of Sebaste (316)
Venerable Demetrius, monk and wonderworker of Priluk in Vologda (1392)
Blessed Prince Vsevelod, wonderworker of Pskov (1138)
Saint Gobnait of Ireland
Saint Theodora, wife of Emperor Theophilus the Iconoclast (867)
Martyr George, abbot in Serbia
Repose of Archbishop Simon of Shanghai and Peking (1933)
Feast day of Our Lady of Lourdes (Catholic Church), and its related observances:
World Day of the Sick (Roman Catholic Church)
Inventors' Day (United States)
Islamic Revolution's Victory Day (Iran)