February 5 Feb 4, 2015 20:05:52 GMT -5
Post by Evon on Feb 4, 2015 20:05:52 GMT -5
February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar.
There are 319 days remaining until the end of the year
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62 Earthquake in Pompeii, Italy.
1576 Henry of Navarre abjures Catholicism at Tours and rejoins the Protestant forces in the French Wars of Religion.
Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan
1597 A group of early Japanese Christians are killed by being crucified for their faith by the new government of Japan for being seen as a threat to Japanese society. By 1640 thousands of Japanese Christians had been martyred.
Mix together arrogance, greed, shipwreck, earthquake, Portuguese-Spanish rivalries, and Japanese fears and you have a recipe for the crucifixion of twenty-six Christians. On this day, February 5, 1597 General Toyotomi Hideyoshi crucified six Franciscan friars, seventeen Japanese converts, and three Jesuits because of that mixture of elements.
Hideyoshi rose from humble origins to complete the unification of Japan. As his strength increased, so did his ambition. It did not seem impossible to him that he might even bring China under his heel. He attacked Korea to gain a foothold on the mainland. But China entered the war, and Hideyoshi's troops were beaten. He needed more money if he was to finance his campaign. About that same time, earthquake ruined his lovely new palace.
When Franciscan friars came from the Philippines, Hideyoshi was happy to talk with them and allow them to operate an open mission in Japan although Christianity was illegal. His reasoning was simple. He hoped that the Spanish in the Philippines would be able to offer the Portuguese some competition. The Portuguese had a lock on Japan's trade with China. Their great ships sailed from Macao, bringing silk and gold--but at a high mark- up. Like most of us, Hideyoshi preferred to pay less for more. If he allowed the Franciscans to stay, they would facilitate Spanish trade, just as the Jesuits facilitated trade with the Portuguese. With competition, prices would fall, he hoped.
The Jesuits urged the Franciscans to walk softly and convert Christians quietly. Through hard experience, they had learned that the Japanese were not to be won by brashness. The Franciscans, however, rejoiced aloud over their success with Hideyoshi, celebrated mass openly, and accused the Jesuits of cowardice for wearing Japanese clothes. The Jesuit father Valignano warned that trouble must follow.
No one could have foreseen the exact circumstances that would prove his words true. A typhoon drove the San Felice off course, a Spanish galleon leaving Manila with a cargo valued at more than a million and a half silver pesos. The ship broke up off the coast of Japan and a local samurai appropriated the cargo. The Franciscans, presuming on what they thought were their excellent relations with Hideyoshi, took the matter up with the general.
Hideyoshi coveted the treasure for himself. But he did not want to seize it outright and risk negotiations with the Spaniards. So he did what many governors do when faced by a difficult decision. He smiled, made promises, and waited. His indecisiveness was to prove costly to the Christians.
While Hideyoshi procrastinated his mood changed. According to the Portuguese the Spanish pilot of the San Felice boasted of Spain's many conquests and said local Christians had supported them. The Spaniards say a Portuguese Jesuit denounced them and got them killed.
Whatever his reason, Hideyoshi ordered the execution of all Christians, including the Jesuits. After he thought it over, however, he decided the Jesuits were too useful for trade to be killed, and spared most of them.
During thirty days of torments, which included having their left ears cut off, the Christians were marched to Nagasaki. On this cold February morning, the twenty-six brave martyrs were publicly humiliated and crucified.
Some sang hymns. From his cross, Paul Miki, a Japanese convert, preached: "I have committed no crime, and the only reason why I am put to death is that I have been teaching the doctrine of Our Lord Jesus Christ. I am very happy to die for such a cause, and see my death as a great blessing from the Lord. At this critical time, when, you can rest assured that I will not try to deceive you, I want to stress and make it unmistakably clear that man can find no way to salvation other than the Christian way."
Roger Williams statue by Franklin Simmons
1631 Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. He soon began questioning Massachusetts' religious policies which fused church and state matters. Williams was banished to Rhode Island five years later, where at Providence he established the first Baptist church in America.
We have not always enjoyed the religious rights we now have. Christian theology, by making men conscious of their worth to God, who sacrificed his Only Begotten Son for them, made them important as individuals. In struggling for religious freedom, our forefathers won civil rights for us.
An important actor in that struggle was Roger Williams. England in the seventeenth century knew few religious rights. In that century George Foxe, the founder of the Quakers and John Bunyan, the Baptist author of Pilgrim's Progress, languished in English prison for daring to differ from the majority in their religious views. Some Christians fled to the newly-founded American colonies to escape persecution at home.
Roger was one of them. He arrived in New England on this day, February 5, 1631, a day remembered by many as "Freedom's Cause Day."
A brilliant scholar, Williams was ordained in the Church of England while at Cambridge. His liking for Puritan views, however, soon forced him out of the established church. So he migrated to New England. There he was offered the congregation at Boston but turned it down, because its people had not broken with the Church of England. The "godly" must separate from the "ungodly" if they were to stay pure, he said.
Salem and Plymouth, his next stops, soon tired of Williams. He was like a square peg in a round hole, for he told them that it was wrong for them to take Indian land without paying for it. He also insisted that the government of the colony had no right to set up a "civil power and officers to judge the convictions of men's souls..." This was too much for New England's Puritans. They believed government was required to enforce godliness and protect true religion as they defined it.
The government expelled Roger Williams from Massachusetts. After wandering for fourteen weeks in the bitter cold of winter, he settled at Narragansett Bay, in territory that would become the colony of Rhode Island. Putting into practice his beliefs, he purchased his land from the Indians and founded a town which he named Providence. He learned the Indians' language and wrote a key to it.
In 1644 he wrote a defense of religious freedom. That same year he secured a charter for his new colony, Rhode Island. This small region became a haven for those whose beliefs differed from the majority. Williams himself abandoned Puritanism and the Baptist church he had helped found (the first in America), opposing all sects and creeds.
But Rhode Island became a model of toleration and of the separation of church and state. If Roger Williams had not been willing to suffer for his beliefs, we might not now enjoy the liberties we do. Three hundred and fifty years later we must sometimes wonder whether we will keep the freedoms men like Roger Williams won with such struggle.
Statue of John Wesley, Savannah, Georgia, United States
1736 The English Wesley brothers, John (32) and Charles (28) first arrived in America at Savannah, GA. They had been invited by Georgia governor James Oglethorpe as missionaries to the American Indians.
1777 On this day in, Georgia formally adopts a new state constitution and becomes the first U.S. state to abolish the inheritance practices of primogeniture and entail.
Primogeniture ensured that the eldest son in a family inherited the largest portion of his father's property upon the father's death. The practice of entail, guaranteeing that a landed estate remain in the hands of only one male heir, was frequently practiced in conjunction with primogeniture. (Virginia abolished entail in 1776, but permitted primogeniture to persist until 1785.)
Georgians restructured inheritance laws in Article LI of the state's constitution by abolishing entail in all forms and proclaiming that any person who died without a will would have his or her estate divided equally among their children; the widow shall have a child's share, or her dower at her option.
The British colonies in North America, and particularly the southern colonies, were known as a haven for younger sons of the British gentry. Most famously, Benjamin Franklin announced in his autobiography that he was the youngest Son of the youngest Son for 5 Generations back. Moving to the colonies was an attractive option for younger sons like Franklin because there younger sons could take their monetary inheritance and build up their own estates, whereas primogeniture and entail prevented them from inheriting similar estates in the mother country.
1778 South Carolina becomes the second state to ratify the Articles of Confederation.
Battle of Minorca, 1756
1782 Spanish defeat British forces and capture Minorca.
1783 In Calabria a sequence of strong earthquakes begins.
1810 Peninsular War: Siege of Cádiz begins.
1812 American missionary Adoniram Judson, 23, married schoolteacher Ann Hasseltine, 22. Two weeks later the couple set sail for India under sponsorship of the American [Congregational] Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
1818 Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte ascends to the thrones of Sweden and Norway.
1849 University of Wisconsin-Madison's first class meets at Madison Female Academy.
1852 The New Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia, one of the largest and oldest museums in the world, opens to the public.
1859 Wallachia and Moldavia are united under Alexander John Cuza as the United Principalities, an autonomous region within the Ottoman Empire, which ushered the birth of the modern Romanian state.
Fanny Crosby Biography - Composer of over 8,000 hymns
1864 Having already established herself as a poet, 44-year-old Fanny Crosby (1820–1915) wrote her first hymn.
1865 On this day in 1865, at the Battle of Dabney's Mill (also known as Hatcher's Run), Union and Confederate forces around Petersburg, Virginia, begin a three-day battle that produces 3,000 casualties but ends with no significant advantage for either side.
Dabney's Mill was another attempt by Union General Ulysses S. Grant to break the siege of Petersburg and Richmond, Virginia. In 1864, Grant and Confederate General Robert E. Lee pounded each other as they wheeled south around the cities. After a month of heavy battling that produced the highest casualty rates of the war, Grant and Lee settled into trenches around Petersburg. These lines eventually stretched 25 miles to Richmond, and the stalemate continued for 10 months. Periodically, Grant mounted offensives either to break through Lee's lines or envelope the ends. In June, August, and October, these moves failed to extricate the Confederates from their trenches.
Now, Grant sent cavalry under General David Gregg to capture a road that carried supplies from Hicksford, Virginia, into Petersburg. On February 5, Gregg moved and captured a few wagons along his objective, the Boydton Plank Road. He found little else, so he pulled back toward the rest of the Union Army. Yankee infantry under General Gouverneur K. Warren also moved forward and probed the area at the end of the Confederate's Petersburg line. The Rebels responded by moving troops into the area. Skirmishes erupted that evening and the fighting continued for two more days as each side maneuvered for an advantage. The fighting surged back and forth around Dabney's Mill, but the Yankees were never able to penetrate the Confederate lines. The Union suffered some 2,000 men killed, wounded, or captured, while the Confederates lost about 1,000. The battle did extend the Petersburg line a few miles to further stretch Lee's thin lines, but the stalemate continued for six more weeks before Grant's forces finally sent Lee racing west with the remnants of his army. The chase ended in April 1865 when Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.
A wood engraving of the Welcome Stranger published in The Illustrated Australian News for Home Reader on 1 March 1869. The scale bar across the bottom represents 12 inches (30 cm).[
1869 The largest alluvial gold nugget in history, called the "Welcome Stranger", is found in Moliagul, Victoria, Australia.
1885 King Leopold II of Belgium establishes the Congo as a personal possession.
The historic Moody Bible Institute arch, viewed from within the central plaza.
1887 The Chicago Evangelization Society was organized by evangelist D. L. Moody, 50 and English-born educator Emma Dryer. Two years later, the Society established the Bible Institute for Home and Foreign Missions. Moody established the Chicago Evangelization Society for the "education and training of Christian workers, including teachers, ministers, missionaries, and musicians who may completely and effectively proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ". Moody died in 1899, and in 1900 the school was renamed Moody Bible Institute.
Many Christians have heard of Moody Bible Institute, some by meeting a worker trained at the school, others by listening to its radio broadcasts, still others by reading its magazine or some book issued by Moody Press. The noble enterprise we know as Moody Bible Institute is linked with all those things. But Moody Institute itself was the offspring of an organization formed on this day, February 5, 1887 under the name Chicago Evangelization Society. That day also happened to be Moody's 50th birthday.
In addition to its other work, the Institute has trained thousands of Christian leaders whose impact has been felt across the world. Emma Dryer, a Moody associate, who had been principal of the Illinois State Normal University, saw the need for the school before he did. After the Chicago Fire, she not only helped those who had lost everything, but developed Bible lessons which she taught to Chicago women. Dryer urged Moody to set up an institution to conduct this same sort of work on a larger scale. When he did not act, she and several others went to their knees in prayer.
Moody's daily experiences confirmed the need for a Bible training institute. People crowded forward in response to his preaching, desperate to learn how they might be freed of their sins and find peace. He could not personally speak to each person, and it was hard to find counselors to assist everyone who needed instruction. In 1886 the subject of a training school came up in a meeting. Moody addressed those present, saying, "I tell you what I want, and what I have on my heart, I believe we have got to have gap-men: men to stand between the laity and the ministers; men who are trained to do city mission work. Take men that have the gifts and train them for the work of reaching the people." Emma Dryer's persistence, backed by the Holy Spirit, had prevailed!
At first the institute was primarily interested in evangelistic work. In May it held a series of training classes known as "May Institute." One of Moody's ushers, John Morrison, pointed to a vacant lot and urged Moody to begin praying for it that a school might be built there. Seeing the success of the 1889 May Institute, Moody trustees purchased the lot Morrison had pointed to, and three neighboring houses. The institute opened with eighty students. Moody died in 1899. The following year, the institute was renamed Moody Bible Institute in his honor. Evangelist Reuben A. Torrey developed a program of practical ministries and established a resident faculty and correspondence courses. Succeeding leaders added other ministries, including the Moody Institute of Science.
1900 The United States and the United Kingdom sign a treaty for the Panama Canal.
1909 Belgian chemist Leo Baekeland announces the creation of Bakelite, the world's first synthetic plastic.
1913 Greek military aviators, Michael Moutoussis and Aristeidis Moraitinis perform the first naval air mission in history, with a Farman MF.7 hydroplane.
1917 The current constitution of Mexico is adopted, establishing a federal republic with powers separated into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches.
1917 The Congress of the United States passes the Immigration Act of 1917 over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. Also known as the Asiatic Barred Zone Act, it forbade immigration from nearly all of south and southeast Asia.
With more than a two-thirds majority, Congress overrides President Woodrow Wilson's veto of the previous week and passes the Immigration Act. The law required a literacy test for immigrants and barred Asiatic laborers, except for those from countries with special treaties or agreements with the United States, such as the Philippines.
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the United States received a majority of the world's immigrants, with 1.3 million immigrants passing through New York's Ellis Island in 1907 alone. Various restrictions had been applied against immigrants since the 1890s, but most of those seeking entrance into the United States were accepted.
However, in 1894, the Immigration Restriction League was founded in Boston and subsequently petitioned the U.S. government to legislate that immigrants be required to demonstrate literacy in some language before being accepted. The organization hoped to quell the recent surge of lower-class immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe. Congress passed a literacy bill in 1897, but President Grover Cleveland vetoed it. In early 1917, with America's entrance into World War I three months away, xenophobia was at a new high, and a bill restricting immigration was passed over President Wilson's veto.
Subsequent immigration to the United States sharply declined, and, in 1924 a law was passed requiring immigrant inspection in countries of origin, leading to the closure of Ellis Island and other major immigrant processing centers. Between 1892 and 1924, some 16 million people successfully immigrated to the United States to seek a better life.
Cathedral Church of Christ the Saviour in Moscow
Кафедральный Храм Христа Спасителя
1918 Following the Bolshevik Revolution, the Russian Orthodox Church was formally separated from the state in Russia.
1918 Stephen W. Thompson shoots down a German airplane. It is the first aerial victory by the U.S. military.
1918 SS Tuscania is torpedoed off the coast of Ireland; it is the first ship carrying American troops to Europe to be torpedoed and sunk.
1919 Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, and D.W. Griffith launch United Artists.
By 1919, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and D.W. Griffith were all heavyweights in the rapidly growing motion-picture industry. Chaplin was a British actor and former vaudeville performer whose “Little Tramp” persona had made him one of the biggest stars of silent film. Pickford, silent film’s favorite ingenue, and Fairbanks, her leading man on-screen and off, were equally familiar to American audiences, and Griffith’s controversial feature Birth of a Nation (1915) had become Hollywood’s first blockbuster, establishing the director as a pioneer in filmmaking techniques. All four, however, were seeking to gain more financial and artistic control over producing and distributing their films. On February 5, 1919, they joined forces to create their own film studio, which they called the United Artists Corporation.
United Artists quickly gained prestige in Hollywood, thanks to the success of the films of its stars, notably Chaplin’s The Gold Rush (1925), as well as the work of actors such as Buster Keaton, Rudolph Valentino and Gloria Swanson. Chaplin directed UA films as well as acted in them, and Pickford concentrated on producing after she retired from acting in the 1930s. With the rise of sound during that decade, UA was helped by the talents (and bankrolls) of veteran producers like Joseph Schenck, Samuel Goldwyn, Howard Hughes and Alexander Korda. The corporation began to struggle financially in the 1940s, however, and in 1951 the production studio was sold and UA became only a financing and distributing facility.
By the mid-1950s, all of the original partners had sold their shares of the company, but UA had begun to thrive again, releasing such films as The African Queen (1951), High Noon (1952), Witness for the Prosecution (1957), Some Like It Hot (1959), The Apartment and The Magnificent Seven (both 1960) and West Side Story (1961). In addition, the company was responsible for the James Bond and Pink Panther film franchises. UA went public in 1957 and became a subsidiary of the TransAmerica Corporation a decade later.
UA films garnered a slew of Best Picture Academy Awards over the course of the 1970s, for Midnight Cowboy (1969), One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975), Rocky (1976) and Annie Hall (1977). Soon after that, however, five top executives left the company in a disagreement and formed the Warner Brothers-backed Orion Pictures. UA sustained an even more devastating blow in 1980, when it released the big-budget flop Heaven’s Gate, directed by Michael Cimino. Two years in the making and way over budget, the film earned less than $4 million at the U.S. box office. After that debacle, UA struggled throughout the 1980s. In 1981, MGM bought the company, merging with it in 1983 to become MGM/UA Entertainment. In a highlight of those relatively dark years, UA did release another Best Picture winner, Rain Man, in 1988.
In 1992, the French bank Credit Lyonnais acquired the corporation and changed its name back to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc., abandoning the United Artists name altogether. The James Bond and Pink Panther franchises were revived, with varying degrees of success. MGM changed hands and was reorganized repeatedly over the next decade and a half, during which UA was repositioned as a boutique producer of smaller, so-called “art house” films such as Bowling for Columbine (2002), Hotel Rwanda (2005) and Capote (2006). In November of 2006, MGM gave the actor/producer Tom Cruise (star of Rain Man) and his production partner, Paula Wagner, control over the United Artists production slate, announcing the decision as a “reintroduction” of the UA brand in the spirit of its founders. Cruise and Wagner, whose former deal with Paramount Pictures ended amid reported acrimony earlier in 2006, released their first co-production with UA, Lions for Lambs, in 2007.
1924 The Royal Greenwich Observatory begins broadcasting the hourly time signals known as the Greenwich Time Signal or the "BBC pips".
1937 President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposes a plan to enlarge the Supreme Court of the United States.
1939 Generalísimo Francisco Franco becomes the 68th "Caudillo de España", or Leader of Spain.
1941 World War II: Allied forces begin the Battle of Keren to capture Keren, Eritrea.
1941 On this day in 1941, Adolf Hitler scolds his Axis partner, Benito Mussolini, for his troops' retreat in the face of British advances in Libya, demanding that the Duce command his forces to resist.
Since 1912, Italy had occupied Libya because of purely economic "expansion" motives. In 1935, Mussolini began sending tens of thousands of Italians to Libya, mostly farmers and other rural workers, in part to relieve overpopulation concerns in Italy. So by the time of the outbreak of the Second World War, Italy had enjoyed a long-term presence in North Africa, and Mussolini began dreaming of expanding that presence--always with an eye toward the same territories that the old "Roman Empire" had counted among its conquests.
Also sitting in North Africa were British troops, which, under a 1936 treaty, were garrisoned in Egypt to protect the Suez Canal and Royal Navy bases at Alexandria and Port Said. Hitler had offered to aid Mussolini early on in his North African expansion, to send German troops to help fend off a British counterattack. But Mussolini had been rebuffed when he had offered Italian assistance during the Battle of Britain. He now insisted that as a matter of national pride, Italy would have to create a Mediterranean sphere of influence on its own--or risk becoming a "junior" partner of Germany's.
But despite expansion into parts of East Africa and Egypt, Mussolini's forces proved no match for the Brits in the long run. British troops pushed the Italians westward, inflicting extraordinary losses on the Axis forces in an attack at Beda Fomm. As Britain threatened to push the Italians out of Libya altogether and break through to Tunisia, Mussolini swallowed his pride and asked Hitler for assistance. Hitler reluctantly agreed (it would mean the first direct German-British encounter in the Mediterranean)--but only if Mussolini stopped the Italians' retreat and kept the British out of Tripoli, the Libyan capital. But the Italians continued to be overwhelmed; in three months, 20,000 men were wounded or killed and 130,000 were taken prisoner. Only with the arrival of German Gen. Erwin Rommel would the Italian resistance be strengthened against further British advances. Even with Germany's help, Italy was able to defend its North African territory only until early 1943.
1944 German theologian and Nazi martyr Dietrich Bonhoeffer wrote in a letter from prison: 'Much that worries us beforehand can afterwards, quite unexpectedly, have a happy and simple solution... Things really are in a better hand than ours.'
1945 World War II: General Douglas MacArthur returns to Manila.
1946 The Chondoist Chongu Party is founded in North Korea.
1958 Gamel Abdel Nasser is nominated to be the first president of the United Arab Republic.
1958 A hydrogen bomb known as the Tybee Bomb is lost by the US Air Force off the coast of Savannah, Georgia, never to be recovered.
1962 French President Charles de Gaulle calls for Algeria to be granted independence.
1963 The European Court of Justice's ruling in Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen establishes the principle of direct effect, one of the most important, if not the most important, decisions in the development of European Union law.
1971 Astronauts land on the moon in the Apollo 14 mission.
1972 Bob Douglas becomes the first African American elected to the Basketball Hall of Fame.
1975 Riots break in Lima, Peru after the police forces go on strike the day before. The uprising (locally known as the Limazo) is bloodily suppressed by the military dictatorship.
1976 The 1976 swine flu outbreak begins at Fort Dix, NJ.
1985 Ugo Vetere, then the mayor of Rome, and Chedli Klibi, then the mayor of Carthage meet in Tunis to sign a treaty of friendship officially ending the Third Punic War which lasted 2,131 years.
1988 Manuel Noriega is indicted on drug smuggling and money laundering charges.
1994 Markale massacres, more than 60 people are killed and some 200 wounded as a mortar shell explodes in a downtown marketplace in Sarajevo.
1994 Byron de la Beckwith is convicted of the assassination of civil rights leader Medger Evers 31 years earlier, ending the lengthiest murder case in American history. Evers was gunned down in the driveway of his Jackson, Mississippi, home while his wife, Myrlie, and the couple's small children were inside waiting for their father.
Beckwith, widely recognized as the killer, was prosecuted for murder in 1964. However, two all-white (and all-male) juries deadlocked and refused to convict Beckwith. A second trial held in the same year resulted in a hung jury. The matter was dropped when it appeared that a conviction would be impossible. Myrlie Evers, who later became the national chairwoman of the NAACP, refused to give up, however, pressing authorities to re-open the case. In 1989, documents came to light showing that jurors had been illegally screened.
Prosecutor Bobby DeLaughter worked with Myrlie Evers to force another prosecution of Beckwith. After four years of legal maneuvering, they were finally successful and justice was achieved when Beckwith was convicted and given a life sentence by a racially diverse jury in 1994. The story was dramatized in Rob Reiner's movie, Ghosts of Mississippi.
Beckwith appealed the conviction, claiming that he had not been granted a speedy trial as required by the Constitution. However, the appeals courts rejected his argument. Beckwith died in 2001.
1997 The so-called Big Three banks in Switzerland announce the creation of a $71 million fund to aid Holocaust survivors and their families.
2000 Russian forces massacre at least 60 civilians in the Novye Aldi suburb of Grozny, Chechnya.
2008 A major tornado outbreak across the Southern United States kills 57.
1703 Gilbert Tennent, Irish-American Presbyterian minister in County Armagh, Ireland. At age 15 he emigrated to America. He received most of his theological training under his father (who founded the "log college"). A bold revivalist and pastor, he preached his most famous sermon, "Dangers of an Unconverted Ministry" in 1740. Because of his strong stand on the Word of God and sharp words, he was the center of controversy most of his life and split the Presbyterian church (a split he later tried to patch up). He was influential in the Great Awakening and a friend of George Whitefield. (d. 1764)
1723 John Witherspoon Presbyterian clergyman/signed Declaration of Independence, at Yester, Scotland. He matriculated to the University of Scotland at age 13, received his M.A. in 1739, and 1743 graduated in divinity. A leader in the Popular Party of the Scottish church, he advocated purity of doctrine, the rights of the local church to choose their own pastors, and he opposed the liberalizing tendencies of the Moderates. He emigrated to America in 1768 to become president of the College of New Jersey (later, Princeton). Though the school suffered great losses during the Revolution, Witherspoon revitalized it, adding new courses with new teachers, all the while strengthening the financial strucure of the institution. Politically, he arrived as a delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia just in time to support the Declaration of Independence, the only clergyman to sign it.
1725 James Otis, Jr., American lawyer and politician, a member of the Massachusetts provincial assembly, and an early advocate of the Patriot views against British policy that led to the American Revolution. His catchphrase "Taxation without representation is tyranny" became the basic Patriot position (d. 1783)
1744 John Jeffries, American physician and surgeon (d. 1819)
1784 Nancy Lincoln, American mother of Abraham Lincoln (d. 1818)
1805 William Holland Thomas (February 5, 1805 – May 10, 1893) Principal Chief of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (the only white man ever to be a chief of the Cherokee) and was elected as North Carolina state senator, serving from 1848–1860. As a youth, he worked at the trading post at Qualla Town, where he learned the Cherokee language and befriended some of the people. He was adopted into the tribe by the chief Yonaguska, learned much of the Cherokee ways, and was named by the chief as his successor.
1817 Joseph Gallup Cochran, missionary to Persia, in New York state (d. 2 November 1871, Persia).
1837 Dwight L. Moody, American evangelist and publisher, founded Moody Publishers (d. 1899) Congregational Church, born in a blizzard, he fired people with heavenly zeal. Dwight Lyman Moody was born on his mother's 32nd birthday, at Northfield, Mass., in the midst of a roaring blizzard. His father died when he was four, leaving his mother to provide for nine small children. One by one they left home to earn their own living, Dwight going to Boston at 17. His Sunday School teacher, Edward Kimbell, became concerned about each member of his class, and sought to bring each boy to personally know the Lord. He was converted at age 18 in his uncle's shoe store. Eager for success and anxious for greater independence, he left Boston for Chicago. There he gathered boys and girls for Sunday school. Moreover, he rented a pew for himself (and later added three more pews) which he filled regularly with young men from off the streets, resulting in many conversions. Then he rented a closed saloon, cleaned it out, and began his own Sunday School, drawing in hundreds of children (shortly reaching 1,500 in regular attendance), children who otherwise would never have heard the Gospel. In time he became a preacher, and, although untaught, he so yielded himself to the Holy Spirit that God used him mightily. His evangelistic ministry travelled the length and breadth of Great Britain and the United States. (d 1899)
1840 Hiram Maxim, American-English inventor, invented the Maxim gun (d. 1916)
1848 Belle Starr, American criminal, Belle associated with the James-Younger gang and other outlaws. She was convicted of horse theft in 1883. (d. 1889)
1858 Henry G. Appenzeller, Methodist Episcopal missionary to Korea and a theology professor there, in Souderton, Pennsylvania (d. 11 June 1902).
1860 Jackson Showalter 1st US chess champion (1888-92, 1895-97, 1906-09)
1885 Burton Downing, American cyclist (d. 1929)
1900 Adlai Stevenson, American politician, 31st Governor of Illinois (d. 1965)
1903 Joan Whitney Payson, American businesswoman and philanthropist (d. 1975)
1903 Nathaniel Owings Indianapolis IN, architect (Oak Ridge TN; Sears)
1906 John Carradine, American actor (d. 1988)
1907 Norton Simon business executive (Simon & Schuster)
1908 Bob Dunn, American trombonist and guitarist (d. 1971)
1912 Willard Parker New York NY, actor (Kiss Me Kate, What A Woman)
1914 William S. Burroughs, American author (d. 1997)
1915 Robert Hofstadter, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1990)
1919 Charles John "Tim" Holt Beverly Hills CA, actor (Treasure of Sierra Madre, Stagecoach, Hitler's Children) (d. 1973)
1919 Red Buttons, American actor (d. 2006)
1923 Claude King, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 2013)
1926 Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, American publisher (d. 2012)
1927 Robert Allen, American pianist and composer (d. 2000)
1927 Ruth Fertel, American businesswoman, founded Ruth's Chris Steak House (d. 2002)
1928 Andrew Greeley, American priest, sociologist, and author (d. 2013)
1928 P. J. Vatikiotis, Israeli-American historian and political scientist (d. 1997)
1929 Al Worthington, American baseball player
1930 John A. Gambling, American radio host (d. 2004)
1933 Norm Grabowski, American actor (d. 2012)
1934 Hank Aaron. American baseball player
1937 Stuart Damon, American actor
1937 Alar Toomre, Estonian-American astronomer and mathematician
1939 Jane Bryant Quinn, American journalist
1940 H. R. Giger, Swiss painter, sculptor, and set designer (d. 2014)
1940 Grady Johnson, American wrestler (d. 2006)
1941 Stephen J. Cannell. American actor, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2010)
1941 David Selby, American actor
1942 Roger Staubach, American football player
1942 Cory Wells, American singer (Three Dog Night)
1943 Nolan Bushnell, American businessman, founded Atari, Inc.
1943 Michael Mann, American director, producer, and screenwriter
1943 Craig Morton, American football player
1944 J. R. Cobb, American guitarist (Classics IV and Atlanta Rhythm Section)
1944 Al Kooper, American singer-songwriter and producer (Blues Project and Blood, Sweat & Tears)
1947 William Strauss, American historian and author (d. 2007)
1947 Darrell Waltrip, American race car driver
1948 Christopher Guest, American actor and director
1948 Barbara Hershey, American actress
1948 Errol Morris, American director and producer
1950 Jonathan Freeman, American actor
1951 Elizabeth Swados, American composer and director
1953 John Beilein, American basketball player and coach
1953 Loretta Tofani, American journalist
1954 Cliff Martinez, American drummer and songwriter (Red Hot Chili Peppers, The Dickies, and The Weirdos)
1955 Mike Heath, American baseball player
1956 Betty Ong, American flight attendant on American Airlines Flight 11 (d. 2001)
1956 David Wiesner, American author
1959 Jennifer Granholm American politician, 47th Governor of Michigan
1961 Tim Meadows, American actor
1962 Jennifer Jason Leigh, American actress
1962 Martin Nievera, Filipino-American singer-songwriter and actor
1963 Steven Shainberg, American director, producer, and screenwriter
1964 Laura Linney, American actress
1964 Duff McKagan, American singer-songwriter, bass player, and producer (Guns N' Roses, Velvet Revolver, Loaded, and Neurotic Outsiders)
1965 Keith Moseley, American bass player and songwriter (The String Cheese Incident)
1967 Chris Parnell, American actor
1968 David R. Flores, Mexican-American jockey
1969 Bobby Brown, American singer-songwriter, dancer, and actor (New Edition)
1971 Sara Evans, American singer-songwriter
1971 John Kaleo, American football player
1972 Kristopher Carter, American composer
1975 Adam Carson, American drummer (AFI and Tiger Army)
1976 Brian Moorman, American football player
1977 Andrew Baldwin, American soldier, physician, and triathlete
1977 Adam Everett, American baseball player
1977 Ahmad Merritt, American football player
1978 Shawn Reaves, American actor
1978 Brian Russell, American football player
1980 Brad Fitzpatrick, American programmer, created LiveJournal
1981 Sara Foster, American actress
1981 Nora Zehetner, American actress
1982 Kevin Everett, American football player
1982 Jenn Suhr, American pole vaulter
1983 Travon Bryant, American basketball player
1984 Nate Salley, American football player
1985 Lindsey Cardinale, American singer
1985 Crystal Hunt, American actress
1985 Laurence Maroney, American football player
1985 Paul Vandervort, American actor and model
1986 Madison Rayne, American wrestler
1986 Reed Sorenson, American race car driver
1987 Darren Criss, American actor and singer
1987 Curtis Jerrells, American basketball player
1987 Alex Kuznetsov, Ukrainian-American tennis player
1988 Johnathan Haggerty, American football player
1998 Sara Tomic, Australian tennis player
1989 Jeremy Sumpter, American actor
1995 Trayvon Martin, American shooting victim (d. 2012)
2002 Davis Cleveland, American actor
251 Saint Agatha, virgin and martyr in the Roman Catholic calendar
523 Avitus of Vienne, Latin archbishop and saint (b. 470)
Adelaide, Abbess of Vilich, detail from a pilgrim sheet, 1718
1015 Adelheid of Vilich, abbess of Saint Maria in Cologne, (b. ca. 970).
1705 Philipp Jakob Spener, the father of Pietism, at Berlin (b. 13 January 1635, Rappoltsweiler, Upper Alsace).
1825 Justus H. C. Helmuth, colonial Lutheran pastor, (b. 16 May 1745, Helmstedt, Germany).
1888 George Bowen, Bombay missionary, (b. 30 April 1816, Middleburn, Vermont).
1915 Ross Barnes, American baseball player (b. 1850)
1967 Leon Leonwood Bean, American businessman, founded L.L.Bean (b. 1872)
1969 Thelma Ritter, American actress (b. 1902)
1970 Rudy York, American baseball player (b. 1913)
1972 Marianne Moore, American poet (b. 1887)
1976 Rudy Pompilli, American saxophonist (Bill Haley and His Comets) (b. 1926)
1981 Ella T. Grasso, American politician, 83rd Governor of Connecticut (b. 1919)
1983 Margaret Oakley Dayhoff, American physical chemist and bioinformatician (b. 1925)
1987 William Collier, Jr., American actor (b. 1902)
1991 Dean Jagger, American actor (b. 1903)
1993 Joseph L. Mankiewicz, American director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1909)
1993 William Pène du Bois, American author and illustrator (b. 1916)
1995 Doug McClure, American actor (b. 1935)
1997 Pamela Harriman, English-American diplomat, 58th United States Ambassador to France (b. 1920)
1998 Tim Kelly, American guitarist (Slaughter) (b. 1963)
2003 Helge Boes, American CIA officer (b. 1970)
2004 John Hench, American animator (b. 1908)
2006 Franklin Cover, American actor (b. 1928)
2007 Fred Ball, American actor (b. 1915)
2007 Leo T. McCarthy, New Zealand-American politician, 43rd Lieutenant Governor of California (b. 1930)
2007 Alfred Worm, Austrian journalist (b. 1945)
2010 Harry Schwarz, South African lawyer, politician, and diplomat, 13th South Africa Ambassador to United States (b. 1924)
2011 Peggy Rea, American actress (b. 1921)
2012 Sam Coppola, American actor (b. 1932)
2012 Al De Lory, American keyboard player, producer, and conductor (b. 1930)
2012 Bill Hinzman, American actor and director (b. 1936)
2012 John Turner Sargent, Sr., American publisher (b. 1924)
2013 Paul Tanner, American trombonist (Glenn Miller Orchestra) (b. 1917)
2014 Roderick Bain, American soldier (b. 1922)
2014 Suzanne Basso, American murderer (b. 1954)
2014 Robert A. Dahl, American political scientist and academic (b. 1915)
2014 Richard Hayman, American harmonica player, composer, and conductor (b. 1920)
2014 Samantha Juste, English-American singer and television host (b. 1944)
Holidays and observances
Christian Feast Day:
Agatha of Sicily
Roger Williams, (Episcopal Church (USA))
Anne Hutchinson (Episcopal Church (USA))
February 5 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Martyr Agatha of Catania in Sicily
Saint Theodosius of Chernigov, archbishop (1696)
Martyrs Theodula of Anazarbus in Cilicia, Helladius, Macarius, Evagrius, and others
Saint Polyeuctus of Constantinople, Patriarch
Martyr Anthony of Athens
New martyrs matushka Agatha of Belarus, Schemamonk Eugene, and Paramon (1938, 1939, 1941)
Repose of Metropolitan Michael of Serbia (1897)