February 1 Jan 31, 2015 20:25:00 GMT -5
Post by Evon on Jan 31, 2015 20:25:00 GMT -5
February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar.
There are 333 days remaining until the end of the year
Days left until elections:
U.S. Debt Clock: www.usdebtclock.org/
481 Vandal king Huneric organises a conference between Catholic and Arian bishops at Carthage.
772 Pope Adrian I (d. 25 December 795), a Roman of noble birth, entered the clerical state under Paul I and was ordained deacon by Stephen III, whom he succeeded as pope on this day.
1327 Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer.
John the Blind
1329 King John of Bohemia captures Medvėgalis, an important fortress of the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and baptizes 6,000 of its defenders
The 1411 treaty
1411 The First Peace of Thorn is signed in Thorn, Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights (Prussia).
1516 Desiderius Erasmus (1466/69–1536) dedicated his amendment of Jerome's Latin (Vulgate) translation of the Bible to Pope Leo X. Erasmus loaded the cannon that Luther fired. The greatest scholar of his day, Erasmus rammed two shots into the barrel of the Reformation.
The first shot was a satire titled, The Praise of Folly, which poked fun at the errors of Christian Europe. For example, Erasmus reminded his readers that Peter said to the Lord, "We have left everything for you." But Folly boasts that, thanks to her influence, "there is scarcely any kind of people who live more at their ease" than the successors of the apostles.
The second shot was a Greek New Testament. For centuries, Jerome's Latin translation, the Vulgate, was the Bible of the Church. However, Jerome's translation had deficiencies. Erasmus reconstructed the original New Testament as best he could from Greek texts and printed it. In a parallel column he provided a new Latin translation. What is more--and this could have cost him his life--he added over a thousand notes that pointed out common errors in interpreting the Bible. He attacked Rome's refusal to let priests marry although some lived openly with mistresses; and he denied that the popes have all the rights that they claim. The scholar also challenged practices not taught in scripture: prayers to the saints, indulgences, and relic-worship.
After years of work, Erasmus was ready to release his book. He wondered how he could avoid trouble. One way was to link the New Testament with some great man's name. And so, on this day, February 1, 1516, Erasmus dedicated his New Testament to Pope Leo X. He had gotten the Pope's permission the year before. In a soothing letter written to Leo a few months later, he assured him that he meant no harm. "We do not intend to tear up the old and commonly accepted edition [the Vulgate], but amend it where it is corrupt, and make it clear where it is obscure."
Just in case the authorities should be angry, Erasmus pointed out that the ideas were not new with him. He quoted the greatest church fathers in support of his corrections. It would be a lot harder for intolerant factions to argue with dead heroes than with him!
Like Jerome's translation, Erasmus' New Testament was not completely accurate either. He did not have access to the best manuscripts. Nonetheless, it was enough of an improvement over the old that Martin Luther, William Tyndale, and other translators based their vernacular versions on it. Furthermore, they picked up Erasmus's calls for reform.
The result was that the Reformers broke away from the Roman Catholic church. For a time Erasmus and Luther remained friends. But Luther's words were so violent that Erasmus could not accept them. When Erasmus did not agree with Luther, the Reformer called him all sorts of names, such as "secret atheist."
Erasmus, who thought that the Christian life meant living in the peace of Christ, was hurt. He was in grave danger from both camps. Protestants said he held onto too much that was Catholic; the Catholics threatened him because they claimed he was wrecking the church. Erasmus had to flee from Catholic Louvain to escape being burned to death at the stake.
Erasmus had such a reputation for wit that people were willing to wait quietly for him to answer a question. Frederick the Wise once asked the scholar his opinion of Luther. Erasmus thought while the king waited silently. Finally he answered, "Two 'crimes' Luther has committed: he has attacked the tiara of the pope and the bellies of the monks." Frederick laughed.
We do not often hear of Erasmus. Yet Anabaptists, Zwinglians, and Lutherans claimed to be his true children. His Bible and his wit helped bring about the Reformation.
Non-contemporary propaganda poster on the Schmalkaldic League on the occasion of its 400th anniversary in 1925
1531 The Smalcaldic League was formed.
1713 The Kalabalik or Tumult in Bendery results from the Ottoman sultan's order that his unwelcome guest, King Charles XII of Sweden, be seized.
1781 Davidson College namesake killed at Cowan's Ford On this day in 1781, American Brigadier General William Lee Davidson dies in combat attempting to prevent General Charles Cornwallis' army from crossing the Catawba River in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina.
Davidson's North Carolina militia, numbering between 600 and 800 men, set up camp on the far side of the river, hoping to thwart or at least slow Cornwallis' crossing. The Patriots stayed back from the banks of the river in order to prevent Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tartleton's forces from fording the river at a different point and surprising the Patriots with a rear attack.
At 1 a.m., Cornwallis began to move his troops toward the ford; by daybreak, they were crossing in a double-pronged formation--one prong for horses, the other for wagons. The noise of the rough crossing, during which the horses were forced to plunge in over their heads in the storm-swollen stream, woke the sleeping Patriot guard.
The Patriots fired upon the Britons as they crossed and received heavy fire in return. Almost immediately upon his arrival at the river bank, General Davidson took a rifle ball to the heart and fell from his horse; his soaked corpse was found late that evening. Although Cornwallis' troops took heavy casualties, the combat did little to slow their progress north toward Virginia.
General Davidson was the son of Ulster-Scot Presbyterian immigrants to Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The family moved in 1748, two years after William's birth, to what was then known as Rowan (now Iredell) County, North Carolina.
In 1835, Davidson's son, William Lee Davidson II, gave the Concord Presbytery land on which to build a college in his father's honor. The school was named Davidson College.
1790 First session of the U.S. Supreme Court. In the Royal Exchange Building on New York City's Broad Street, the Supreme Court of the United States meets for the first time, with Chief Justice John Jay of New York presiding.
The U.S. Supreme Court was established by Article Three of the U.S. Constitution, which took effect in March 1789. The Constitution granted the Supreme Court ultimate jurisdiction over all laws, especially those in which constitutionality was at issue. The court was also designated to rule on cases concerning treaties of the United States, foreign diplomats, admiralty practice, and maritime jurisdiction.
In September 1789, the Judiciary Act was passed, implementing Article Three by providing for six justices who would serve on the court for life. The same day, President George Washington appointed John Jay to preside as chief justice, and John Rutledge of South Carolina, William Cushing of Massachusetts, John Blair of Virginia, Robert Harrison of Maryland, and James Wilson of Pennsylvania to serve as associate justices. Two days later, all six appointments were confirmed by the U.S. Senate.
The Supreme Court later grew into arguably the most powerful judicial body in the world in terms of its central place in the U.S. political order. In times of constitutional crisis, for better or worse, it always played a definitive role in resolving the great issues of the time.
1812 The name “primitive” was added to a branch of the Methodist Church in Tunstall, England.
An old photograph of the Cagsawa ruins with the façade still standing. The church was largely destroyed during the 1814 eruption of Mayon.
1814 Mayon Volcano in the Philippines erupts, killing around 1,200 people, the most devastating eruption of the volcano.
1822 The Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews was established in Berlin.
1845 Baylor University was founded in Independence, Texas, under Baptist sponsorship.
Civil war monument in Galveston, Texas.
1861 American Civil War: Texas secedes from the United States. On this day in 1861, Texas becomes the seventh state to secede from the Union when a state convention votes 166 to 8 in favor of the measure.
The Texans who voted to leave the Union did so over the objections of their governor, Sam Houston. A staunch Unionist, Houston's election in 1859 as governor seemed to indicate that Texas did not share the rising secessionist sentiments of the other Southern states.
However, events swayed many Texans to the secessionist cause. John Brown's raid on the federal armory at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia), in October 1859 had raised the specter of a major slave insurrection, and the ascendant Republican Party made many Texans uneasy about continuing in the Union. After Abraham Lincoln's election to the presidency in November 1860, pressure mounted on Houston to call a convention so that Texas could consider secession. He did so reluctantly in January 1861, and sat in silence on February 1 as the convention voted overwhelmingly in favor of secession. Houston grumbled that Texans were "stilling the voice of reason," and he predicted an "ignoble defeat" for the South. Houston refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy and was replaced in March 1861 by his lieutenant governor.
Texas' move completed the first round of secession. Seven states--South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas--left the Union before Lincoln took office. Four more states--Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas-- waited until the formal start of the Civil War, with the April 1861 firing on Fort Sumter at Charleston, South Carolina, before deciding to leave the Union. The remaining slave states--Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri--never mustered the necessary majority for secession.
1862 Ardent abolitionist Julia Ward Howe (1819–1910) published the “Battle Hymn of the Republic” in The Atlantic Monthly.
1865 President Abraham Lincoln signs the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
1876 A murder conviction effectively forces the violent Pennsylvanian Irish anti-owner coal miners, the "Molly Maguires", to disband.
1884 The first volume (A to Ant) of the Oxford English Dictionary is published. On this day in 1884, the first portion, or fascicle, of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), considered the most comprehensive and accurate dictionary of the English language, is published. Today, the OED is the definitive authority on the meaning, pronunciation and history of over half a million words, past and present
Plans for the dictionary began in 1857 when members of London's Philological Society, who believed there were no up-to-date, error-free English dictionaries available, decided to produce one that would cover all vocabulary from the Anglo-Saxon period (1150 A.D.) to the present. Conceived of as a four-volume, 6,400-page work, it was estimated the project would take 10 years to finish. In fact, it took over 40 years until the 125th and final fascicle was published in April 1928 and the full dictionary was complete--at over 400,000 words and phrases in 10 volumes--and published under the title A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles.
Unlike most English dictionaries, which only list present-day common meanings, the OED provides a detailed chronological history for every word and phrase, citing quotations from a wide range of sources, including classic literature and cookbooks. The OED is famous for its lengthy cross-references and etymologies. The verb "set" merits the OED's longest entry, at approximately 60,000 words and detailing over 430 uses.
No sooner was the OED finished than editors began updating it. A supplement, containing new entries and revisions, was published in 1933 and the original dictionary was reprinted in 12 volumes and officially renamed the Oxford English Dictionary.
Between 1972 and 1986, an updated 4-volume supplement was published, with new terms from the continually evolving English language plus more words and phrases from North America, Australia, the Caribbean, New Zealand, South Africa and South Asia.
In 1984, Oxford University Press embarked on a five-year, multi-million-dollar project to create an electronic version of the dictionary. The effort required 120 people just to type the pages from the print edition and 50 proofreaders to check their work. In 1992, a CD-ROM version of the dictionary was released, making it much easier to search and retrieve information.
Today, the dictionary's second edition is available online to subscribers and is updated quarterly with over 1,000 new entries and revisions. At a whopping 20 volumes weighing over 137 pounds, it would reportedly take one person 120 years to type all 59 million words in the OED.
1887 Official registration of Hollywood On this day in 1887, Harvey Wilcox officially registers Hollywood with the Los Angeles County recorder’s office. Wilcox and his wife, Daeida, had moved to Southern California four years earlier from Topeka, Kansas, where Harvey had made his fortune in real estate. They bought 160 acres of land in the Cahuenga Valley, located in the foothills to the west of the city of Los Angeles. A once-sleepy settlement founded in 1781 as El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles de Poricuncula, Los Angeles was by then expanding rapidly thanks to the completion of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1876 (the Santa Fe Railroad would arrive in 1885).
Wilcox, who had lost the use of his legs as a child due to polio, envisioned the land as the perfect site for a utopian-like community for devout Christians, where they could live a highly moral life free of vices such as alcohol (Wilcox was a prohibitionist). Daeida Wilcox called the new community “Hollywood,” borrowing the name from a Chicago friend who told her that was the name of a summer home she had in the Midwest. Harvey laid out a street map of the settlement, centered on a main street he called Prospect Avenue (it was later renamed Hollywood Boulevard). After filing the map with the L.A. County recorder’s office, Wilcox set about laying out Hollywood’s streets, made of dirt and lined with pepper trees.
As Harvey sold lots, Daeida worked to raise money to build churches, a school and a library. By 1900, nine years after Harvey Wilcox’s death, Hollywood had a population of 500, compared with 100,000 people in Los Angeles at the time. It was connected to L.A. by a single-track streetcar running down Prospect Avenue; it took two hours to make the seven-mile trip, and service was infrequent. In 1910, the community of Hollywood voted to consolidate with Los Angeles due to an inadequate supply of water. Shortly thereafter, the fledgling motion-picture industry began growing exponentially, as moviemakers found their ideal setting in the mild, sunny climate and varied terrain of Southern California. As the years went by, Harvey Wilcox’s dreams of a sober, conservative religious community faded even further into the background, as Hollywood became known throughout the world as the gilded center of an industry built on fantasy, fame and glamour.
Edison's Black Maria Studio
1893 Thomas A. Edison finishes construction of the first motion picture studio, the Black Maria in West Orange, New Jersey.
1895 Fountains Valley, Pretoria, the oldest nature reserve in Africa, is proclaimed by President Paul Kruger.
1908 King Carlos I of Portugal and his son, Prince Luis Filipe, are killed in Terreiro do Paco, Lisbon. He was the first Portuguese king to die a violent death since Sebastian of Portugal (1578). This occurred in 1908, when Carlos was murdered in Lisbon as he travelled in an open carriage with the royal family.
1918 Russia adopts the Gregorian Calendar.
Reenactors portraying the NWMP K Troop.
1920 The Royal Canadian Mounted Police begins operations.
1924 The United Kingdom recognizes the USSR.
1926 By this date following World War I the Missouri Synod Board for Relief in Europe had handled $1,310,283.03 in cash and three million pounds of foodstuffs for distribution in Europe.
1942 World War II: Josef Terboven, Reichskommissar of German-occupied Norway, appoints Vidkun Quisling the Minister President of the National Government.
A bomb-laden SBD-2 Dauntless dive bomber prepares to take off from the U.S. carrier Enterprise during the raids on February 1.
1942 World War II: U.S. Navy conducts Marshalls-Gilberts raids, the first offensive action by the United States against Japanese forces in the Pacific Theater.
1942 Voice of America, the official external radio and television service of the United States government, begins broadcasting with programs aimed at areas controlled by the Axis powers.
1946 Trygve Lie of Norway is picked to be the first United Nations Secretary General.
A breach at Erith after the 1953 flood
1953 North Sea flood of 1953 (Dutch, Watersnoodramp, literally "flood disaster") was a major flood caused by a heavy storm, that occurred on the night of Saturday, 31 January 1953 and morning of Sunday, 1 February 1953. The floods struck the Netherlands, Belgium, England and Scotland.
A section of lunch counter from the Greensboro, North Carolina Woolworth is now preserved in the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History
1960 Four black students stage the first of the Greensboro sit-ins at a lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina.
1963 The Lutheran Free Church (an American denomination with Norwegian roots) merged with The American Lutheran Church.
The Beatles I Want To Hold Your Hand
1964 The Beatles have their first number one hit in the United States with "I Want to Hold Your Hand."
A.P. Low and party on a hauling picnic up Lake Winokapau, Hamilton River (now the Churchill River), Labrador, 1894.
1965 The Hamilton River in Labrador, Canada is renamed the Churchill River in honour of Winston Churchill.
1966 Missouri Synod mission activities were unified under one Board for Missions.
1968 Vietnam War: The execution of Viet Cong officer Nguyen Van Lem by South Vietnamese National Police Chief Nguyen Ngoc Loan is videotaped and photographed by Eddie Adams. This image helped build opposition to the Vietnam War.
Joint service seal of the Canadian Armed Forces
1968 Canada's three military services, the Royal Canadian Navy, the Canadian Army and the Royal Canadian Air Force, are unified into the Canadian Forces.
1968 The New York Central Railroad and the Pennsylvania Railroad are merged to form Penn Central Transportation.
1978 Director Roman Polanski skips bail and flees the United States to France after pleading guilty to charges of having sex with a 13-year-old girl.
روح الله خمینی
1979 The Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returns to Tehran, Iran after nearly 15 years of exile. The shah and his family had fled the country two weeks before, and jubilant Iranian revolutionaries were eager to establish a fundamentalist Islamic government under Khomeini's leadership.
Born around the turn of the century, Ruhollah Khomeini was the son of an Islamic religious scholar and in his youth memorized the Qur'an. He was a Shiite--the branch of Islam practiced by a majority of Iranians--and soon devoted himself to the formal study of Shia Islam in the city of Qom. A devout cleric, he rose steadily in the informal Shiite hierarchy and attracted many disciples.
In 1941, British and Soviet troops occupied Iran and installed Mohammad Reza Pahlavi as the second modern shah of Iran. The new shah had close ties with the West, and in 1953 British and U.S. intelligence agents helped him overthrow a popular political rival. Mohammad Reza embraced many Western ideas and in 1963 launched his "White Revolution," a broad government program that called for the reduction of religious estates in the name of land redistribution, equal rights for women, and other modern reforms.
Khomeini, now known by the high Shiite title "ayatollah," was the first religious leader to openly condemn the shah's program of westernization. In fiery dispatches from his Faziye Seminary in Qom, Khomeini called for the overthrow of the shah and the establishment of an Islamic state. In 1963, Mohammad Reza imprisoned him, which led to riots, and on November 4, 1964, expelled him from Iran.
Khomeini settled in An Najaf, a Shiite holy city across the border in Iraq, and sent home recordings of his sermons that continued to incite his student followers. Breaking precedence with the Shiite tradition that discouraged clerical participation in government, he called for Shiite leaders to govern Iran.
In the 1970s, Mohammad Reza further enraged Islamic fundamentalists in Iran by holding an extravagant celebration of the 2,500th anniversary of the pre-Islamic Persian monarchy and replaced the Islamic calendar with a Persian calendar. As discontent grew, the shah became more repressive, and support for Khomeini grew. In 1978, massive anti-shah demonstrations broke out in Iran's major cities. Dissatisfied members of the lower and middle classes joined the radical students, and Khomeini called for the shah's immediate overthrow. In December, the army mutinied, and on January 16, 1979, the shah fled.
Khomeini arrived in Tehran in triumph on February 1, 1979, and was acclaimed as the leader of the Iranian Revolution. With religious fervor running high, he consolidated his authority and set out to transform Iran into a religious state. On November 4, 1979, the 15th anniversary of his exile, students stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran and took the staff hostage. With Khomeini's approval, the radicals demanded the return of the shah to Iran and held 52 Americans hostage for 444 days. The shah died in Egypt of cancer in July 1980.
In December 1979, a new Iranian constitution was approved, naming Khomeini as Iran's political and religious leader for life. Under his rule, Iranian women were denied equal rights and required to wear a veil, Western culture was banned, and traditional Islamic law and its often-brutal punishments were reinstated. In suppressing opposition, Khomeini proved as ruthless as the shah, and thousands of political dissidents were executed during his decade of rule.
In 1980, Iraq invaded Iran's oil-producing province of Khuzestan. After initial advances, the Iraqi offense was repulsed. In 1982, Iraq voluntarily withdrew and sought a peace agreement, but Khomeini renewed fighting. Stalemates and the deaths of thousands of young Iranian conscripts in Iraq followed. In 1988, Khomeini finally agreed to a U.N.-brokered cease-fire.
After the Ayatollah Khomeini died on June 3, 1989, more than two million anguished mourners attended his funeral. Gradual democratization began in Iran in early the 1990s, culminating in a free election in 1997 in which the moderate reformist Mohammed Khatami was elected president.
Diagram showing movement of the aircraft involved in the accident.
1991 A runway collision between USAir Flight 1493 and SkyWest Flight 5569 at Los Angeles International Airport results in the deaths of 34 people, and injuries to 30 others.
Bhopal memorial for those killed and disabled by the 1984 toxic gas release
1992 The Chief Judicial Magistrate of Bhopal court declares Warren Anderson, ex-CEO of Union Carbide, a fugitive under Indian law for failing to appear in the Bhopal Disaster case.
1993 Gary Bettman becomes the NHL's first commissioner
1994 Punk rock band Green Day releases their album Dookie, which would eventually sell over 20 million copies worldwide.
1996 The Communications Decency Act is passed by the U.S. Congress.
1998 Rear Admiral Lillian E. Fishburne becomes the first female African American to be promoted to rear admiral.
2002 Daniel Pearl, American journalist and South Asia Bureau Chief of the Wall Street Journal, kidnapped January 23, 2002, is beheaded and mutilated by his Muslim captors.
STS-107 flight insignia
2003 Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-107 disintegrates during reentry into the Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts aboard. The Columbia's 28th space mission, designated STS-107, was originally scheduled to launch on January 11, 2001, but was delayed numerous times for a variety of reasons over nearly two years. Columbia finally launched on January 16, 2003, with a crew of seven. Eighty seconds into the launch, a piece of foam insulation broke off from the shuttle's propellant tank and hit the edge of the shuttle's left wing.
Cameras focused on the launch sequence revealed the foam collision but engineers could not pinpoint the location and extent of the damage. Although similar incidents had occurred on three prior shuttle launches without causing critical damage, some engineers at the space agency believed that the damage to the wing could cause a catastrophic failure. Their concerns were not addressed in the two weeks that Columbia spent in orbit because NASA management believed that even if major damage had been caused, there was little that could be done to remedy the situation.
Columbia reentered the earth's atmosphere on the morning of February 1. It wasn't until 10 minutes later, at 8:53 a.m.--as the shuttle was 231,000 feet above the California coastline traveling at 23 times the speed of sound--that the first indications of trouble began. Because the heat-resistant tiles covering the left wing's leading edge had been damaged or were missing, wind and heat entered the wing and blew it apart.
The first debris began falling to the ground in west Texas near Lubbock at 8:58 a.m. One minute later, the last communication from the crew was heard, and at 9 a.m. the shuttle disintegrated over southeast Texas, near Dallas. Residents in the area heard a loud boom and saw streaks of smoke in the sky. Debris and the remains of the crew were found in more than 2,000 locations across East Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana. Making the tragedy even worse, two pilots aboard a search helicopter were killed in a crash while looking for debris. Strangely, worms that the crew had used in a study that were stored in a canister aboard the Columbia did survive.
In August 2003, an investigation board issued a report that revealed that it in fact would have been possible either for the Columbia crew to repair the damage to the wing or for the crew to be rescued from the shuttle. The Columbia could have stayed in orbit until February 15 and the already planned launch of the shuttle Atlantis could have been moved up as early as February 10, leaving a short window for repairing the wing or getting the crew off of the Columbia.
In the aftermath of the Columbia disaster, the space shuttle program was grounded until July 16, 2005, when the space shuttle Discovery was put into orbit.
2004 251 people are trampled to death and 244 injured in a stampede at the Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia.
Justin Timberlake and Janet Jackson immediately after Timberlake tore off part of Jackson's clothes at the end of their halftime performance during Super Bowl XXXVIII.
2004 Janet Jackson's wardrobe malfunction during the half-time show of Super Bowl XXXVIII, results in US broadcasters adopting a stronger adherence to Federal Communications Commission censorship guidelines.
2013 The Shard, the tallest building in the European Union, is opened to the public.
Walter de Stapledon (1261-1326), Bishop of Exeter. Detail from his effigy in Exeter Cathedral
1261 Walter de Stapledon, English bishop and politician, Lord High Treasurer (d. 1326)
1459 Conrad Celtes, German poet and scholar (d. 1508)
1462 Johannes Trithemius, German lexicographer, historian, and cryptographer (d. 1516)
1763 Thomas Campbell founder (Church of Disciples in America), Presbyterian minister who became a prominent reformer during the Second Great Awakening of the United States. Born in County Down, northern Ireland, he began a religious reform movement on the American frontier. He was joined in the work by his son Alexander Campbell. Their movement, known as the "Disciples of Christ", merged in 1832 with the similar movement led by Barton W. Stone to form what is now described as the American Restoration Movement (also known as the Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement).
1801 Titus Coan, missionary to Hawaii, at Killingworth, Connecticut (d. 1 December 1882, Hilo, Hawaii).
1801 Thomas Cole American artist. He is regarded as the founder of the Hudson River School, an American art movement that flourished in the mid-19th century. Cole's Hudson River School, as well as his own work, was known for its realistic and detailed portrayal of American landscape and wilderness, which feature themes of romanticism.
1807 William Bowen Campbell Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1867
1810 Charles Lenox Remond (d December 22, 1873) American orator, activist and abolitionist based in Massachusetts. He lectured against slavery across the Northeast, and in the British Isles on an 1840 tour with William Lloyd Garrison. During the American Civil War, he recruited blacks for the United States Colored Troops, helping staff the first two units sent from Massachusetts. From a large family of African-American entrepreneurs, he was the brother of Sarah Parker Remond, also a lecturer against slavery
1819 Henry Lawrence Eustis Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1885
1820 George Hendric Houghton, American Protestant Episcopal clergyman distinguished for his activity in benevolent work, (d. 17 November 1897).
1829 John Potts Slough American politician, lawyer, Union general during the American Civil War, and Chief Justice of New Mexico. He commanded the Union forces at the Battle of Glorieta Pass, died in 1867
1833 Henry McNeal Turner minister, politician, and the first southern bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church; he was a pioneer in Georgia in organizing new congregations of the independent black denomination after the American Civil War. Born free in South Carolina, Turner learned to read and write and became a Methodist preacher. He joined the AME Church in St. Louis, Missouri in 1858, where he became a minister; later he had pastorates in Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, DC.
In 1863 during the American Civil War, Turner was appointed as the first black chaplain in the United States Colored Troops. Afterward, he was appointed to the Freedmen's Bureau in Georgia. He settled in Macon and was elected to the state legislature in 1868 during Reconstruction. He planted many AME churches in Georgia after the war. In 1880 he was elected as the first southern bishop of the AME Church after a fierce battle within the denomination. Angered by the Democrats' regaining power and instituting Jim Crow laws in the late nineteenth century South, Turner began to support black nationalism and emigration of blacks to Africa. He was the chief figure to do so in the late nineteenth century; the movement grew after World War I.
1841 William Davenport, American magician (d. 1877),
1844 G. Stanley Hall, American psychologist. His interests focused on childhood development. (d. 1924)
1850 William Keller Frick, professor, pastor and president of the English Evangelical Lutheran Synod of the Northwest, was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania (d. 20 August 1918).
1851 Durham Stevens, American diplomat and later an employee of Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs. His shooting death at the hands of Korean American assassins Jang In-hwan and Jeon Myeong-un led to his being described as "the first victim of Korean terrorism". (d. 1908)
1859 Victor Herbert, Irish-American cellist, composer, and conductor (d. 1924)
1872 Jerome F. Donovan, American politician (d. 1949)
1872 Andrew Kehoe, American murderer (d. 1927)
1880 Ferdinand H. Schmitt, professor at Concordia Teachers College (Addison and River Forest, Illinois), was born at Sebewaing, Michigan (d. 24 September 1962, Miami, Florida). He was a graduate of the Addison teachers seminary in 1901 and of Michigan State Normal School in 1906. He also earned a Ph.B. degree from the University of Chicago in 1926 and received an honorary LL.D. degree from the River Forest school in 1956. He served as a teacher at Sebewaing, Michigan, and then became an assistant instructor at Addison and a full professor at Addison and River Forest beginning in 1906. He was also the school’s business manager. He retired in 1947.
1884 Bradbury Robinson, American football player and physician (d. 1949)
1887 Charles Nordhoff, English-American author (d. 1947)
1888 Charles January, American soccer player (d. 1970
1894 John Ford, American director and producer (d. 1973)
1894 Carl S. Mundinger Sr. in Manawa, Wisconsin (d. 4 March 1967). He graduated from Concordia Seminary (Saint Louis) in 1917 and served congregations in Walker and Hopkins-Excelsior, Minnesota. In 1936 he became the president of St. John's College (Winfield, Kansas) and served in that position until 1958, when he became a professor there. He was the author of The Government in the Missouri Synod.
1894 James P. Johnson, American pianist and composer (d. 1955)
1898 Leila Denmark, American pediatrician (d. 2012)
1899 Charles S. Robinson, hymnist, died in New York City (b. 31 March 1829, Bennington, Vermont).
1901 Frank Buckles, American soldier (d. 2011)
1901 Clark Gable, American actor (d. 1960)
1902 Langston Hughes, American poet and author American poet, social activist, novelist, playwright, and columnist. He was one of the earliest innovators of the then-new literary art form called jazz poetry. Hughes is best known as a leader of the Harlem Renaissance. He famously wrote about the period that "the negro was in vogue", which was later paraphrased as "when Harlem was in vogue". (d. 1967)
1904 S. J. Perelman, American author and screenwriter (d. 1979)
1906 Hildegarde, American actress and singer (d. 2005)
1908 George Pal, Hungarian-American animator and producer (d. 1980)
1909 George Beverly Shea, Canadian-born American gospel singer and hymn composer. Shea was often described as "America's beloved gospel singer" and was considered "the first international singing 'star' of the gospel world," as a consequence of his solos at Billy Graham Crusades and his exposure on radio, records and television. Because of the attendance at Graham's Crusades, Shea has sung live before more people than anyone else in history(d. 2013)
1915 Alicia Rhett, American actress and painter (d. 2014)
1918 Ignacy Tokarczuk, Polish archbishop (d. 2012)
1918 Ernest Childers (d March 17, 2005) United States Army officer, Muscogee (Creek) Indian, and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration, the Medal of Honor, for his valorous actions in World War II.
1920 Mike Scarry, American football player and coach (d. 2012)
1924 Richard Hooker, American author (d. 1997)
1926 Shane Devine, American judge (d. 1999)
1927 Galway Kinnell, American poet and academic (d. 2014)
1928 Tom Lantos, Hungarian-American politician (d. 2008)
1928 Stuart Whitman, American actor
1931 Bob Smith, American baseball player (d. 2013)
1934 Bob Shane, American singer and guitarist (The Kingston Trio)
1936 Azie Taylor Morton, American politician, 36th Treasurer of the United States (d. 2003)
1937 Don Everly, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Everly Brothers)
1937 Garrett Morris, American actor
1937 Ray Sawyer, American singer-songwriter (Dr. Hook & the Medicine Show)
1938 Sherman Hemsley, American actor (d. 2012)
1939 Paul Gillmor, American lawyer and politician (d. 2007)
1939 Del McCoury, American singer and guitarist (Del McCoury Band)
1939 Joe Sample, American pianist and composer (The Crusaders) (d. 2014)
1940 Bibi Besch, Austrian-American actress (d. 1996)
1941 Jerry Spinelli, American author
1943 Fred Barnes, American journalist
1944 Paul Blair, American baseball player and coach (d. 2013)
1944 Mike Enzi, American politician
1944 Petru Popescu, Romanian-American director, producer, and author
1944 Dick Snyder, American basketball player
1946 Chris Clark, American singer
1947 Jessica Savitch, American journalist (d. 1983)
1948 Rick James, American singer-songwriter and producer (The Mynah Birds) (d. 2004)
1950 Mike Campbell, American guitarist, songwriter, and producer (Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers and Mudcrutch)
1950 Alan Moller, American meteorologist and photographer (d. 2014)
1951 Sonny Landreth, American guitarist and songwriter
1952 Dennis Condrey, American wrestler
1954 Chuck Dukowski, American singer-songwriter and bass player (Black Flag, Würm, Black Face, and October Faction)
1954 Bill Mumy, American singer-songwriter and actor
1955 Ernie Camacho, American baseball player
1956 Exene Cervenka, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (X, The Knitters, and Auntie Christ)
1957 Renae Jacobs, American voice actress
1961 Daniel M. Tani, American engineer and astronaut
1964 Jani Lane, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Warrant and Saints of the Underground) (d. 2011)
1965 Sherilyn Fenn, American actress
1965 Brandon Lee, American actor and martial artist (d. 1993)
1966 Michelle Akers, American soccer player
1966 Donna Edmondson, American model
1967 Meg Cabot, American author
1968 Kent Mercker, American baseball player
1968 Lisa Marie Presley, American singer-songwriter
1968 Pauly Shore, American comedian and actor
1969 Andrew Breitbart, American publisher and author (d. 2012)
1969 Brian Krause, American actor and screenwriter
1969 Joshua Redman, American saxophonist and composer
1969 Patrick Wilson, American drummer (Weezer, The Special Goodness, and The Rentals)
1970 Malik Sealy, American basketball player (d. 2000)
1971 Michael C. Hall, American actor
1971 Hynden Walch, American actress
1971 Ron Welty, American drummer (The Offspring and Steady Ground)
1972 Yoshi DeHerrera, American television host
1973 Andrew DeClercq, American basketball player
1974 Walter McCarty, American basketball player
1975 Big Boi, American rapper and producer (Outkast and Purple Ribbon All-Stars)
1976 Phil Ivey, American poker player
1977 Lari Ketner, American football player (d. 2014)
1977 Robert Traylor, American basketball player (d. 2011)
1978 Ken Johnson, American basketball player
1979 Julie Augustyniak, American soccer player
1979 Jason Isbell, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Drive-By Truckers)
1983 Kevin Martin, American basketball player
1983 Andrew VanWyngarden, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (MGMT)
1984 Lee Thompson Young, American actor (d. 2013)
1985 Rachael Scdoris, American runner and dog musher
1986 Lauren Conrad, American fashion designer and author
1987 Ronda Rousey, American mixed martial artist, judoka and actress
1987 Montario Hardesty, American football player
1987 Heather Morris, American actress, singer, and dancer
1988 Brett Anderson, American baseball player
1994 Skylar Laine, American singer-songwriter
1998 Paris Smith, American actress and singer
525 (traditional date) Brigit, founder of a monastery at Kildare and considered the second patron saint of Ireland,(b. ca. 451).
772 Pope Stephen III (b. 720)
1542 Girolamo Aleandro, Italian cardinal (b. 1480)
1563 Menas of Ethiopia (b. 1559)
1590 Lawrence Humphrey, English theologian and academic (b. 1527)
1691 Pope Alexander VIII (b. 1610)
1832 Archibald Murphey, American politician (b. 1777)
1850 Edward Baker Lincoln, American son of Abraham Lincoln (b. 1846)
1851 Mary Shelley, English author (b. 1797)
1893 George Henry Sanderson, American politician, 22nd Mayor of San Francisco (b. 1824)
1899 Charles S. Robinson, hymnist, in New York City (b. 31 March 1829, Bennington, Vermont).
1911 John Henry Harpster, missionary of the Lutheran General Synod in India, at Mount Airy, Pennsylvania (b. 27 April 1844, Centerhall, Pennsylvania).
1922 William Desmond Taylor, American actor and director (b. 1872)
1928 Hughie Jennings, American baseball player and manager (b. 1869)
1940 Philip Francis Nowlan, American author (b. 1888)
1949 Herbert Stothart, American conductor and composer (b. 1885)
1958 Clinton Davisson, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1888)
1959 Madame Sul-Te-Wan, American actress (b. 1873)
1963 Fleetwood Lindley, American florist (b. 1888)
1966 Hedda Hopper, American actress and columnist (b. 1885)
1966 Buster Keaton, American actor (b. 1895)
1976 George Whipple, American physician and pathologist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1878)
1981 Donald Wills Douglas, Sr., American businessman, founded the Douglas Aircraft Company (b. 1892)
1986 Alva Myrdal, Swedish sociologist and politician, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1902)
1988 Heather O'Rourke, American actress (b. 1975)
1989 Elaine de Kooning, American painter (b. 1918)
1991 Carol Dempster, American actress (b. 1901)
1997 Herb Caen, American journalist (b. 1916)
1999 Paul Calvert, Canadian baseball player (b. 1917)
1999 Paul Mellon, American philanthropist (b. 1907)
2003 crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia - Michael P. Anderson, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1959)
David M. Brown, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1956)
Kalpana Chawla, Indian-American astronaut (b. 1961)
Laurel Clark, American captain, surgeon, and astronaut (b. 1961)
Rick Husband, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1957)
William C. McCool, American commander, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1961)
Ilan Ramon, Israeli colonel, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1954)
2003 Mongo Santamaría, Cuban-American drummer and bandleader (b. 1922)
2004 May O'Donnell, American dancer and choreographer (b. 1909)
2006 Dick Bass, American football player (b. 1937)
2007 Whitney Balliett, American journalist and critic (b. 1926)
2007 Ray Berres, American baseball player (b. 1907)
2007 Ahmad Abu Laban, Egyptian-Danish religious leader, founded The Islamic Society in Denmark (b. 1946)
2007 Gian Carlo Menotti, Italian-American composer (b. 1911)
2010 Freddie Joe "Jack" Brisco (September 21, 1941 – February 1, 2010) American professional wrestler. He performed for various territories of the National Wrestling Alliance (NWA), becoming a two-time NWA World Heavyweight Champion, and multi-time NWA Tag Team Champion with his brother Gerald Brisco. Brisco is considered one of the top wrestlers of his era; in 2005, Don Leo Jonathan called him "probably the greatest champion of the 20th century."
In the late 1970s, the Brisco brothers discovered Terry Bollea, the future wrestling legend best known as Hulk Hogan, whom they introduced to Hiro Matsuda for training.
Brisco was raised in Blackwell, Oklahoma with five siblings. He grew up as a fan of professional wrestling, and particularly a fan of NWA World Champion Lou Thesz He was followed by his younger brother, Gerald Brisco, into sport wrestling and turned down a football scholarship at University of Oklahoma to go to Oklahoma State. In 1965, he became the first Native American to win an NCAA Wrestling National Championship. He won it during his junior year, and wasn't taken down once during the entire season.
2010 Justin Mentell, American actor (b. 1982)
2011 Douglas Haig, American actor (b. 1920)
2012 Robert B. Cohen, American businessman, founded Hudson News (b. 1925)
2012 Don Cornelius, American television host and producer (b. 1936)
2012 Angelo Dundee, American boxing trainer (b. 1921)
2012 Ardath Mayhar, American author (b. 1930)
2012 David Peaston, American singer (b. 1957)
2013 Barney, American dog of George W. Bush (b. 2000)
2013 Helene Hale, American politician (b. 1918)
2013 Ed Koch, American lawyer, judge, and politician, 105th Mayor of New York City (b. 1924)
2013 Robin Sachs, English-American actor (b. 1951)
2013 Cecil Womack, American singer-songwriter and producer (The Valentinos and Womack & Womack) (b. 1947)
2013 Vladimir Yengibaryan, Armenian boxer (b. 1932)
2014 Floyd Adams, Jr., American publisher and politician, 63rd Mayor of Savannah, Georgia (b. 1945)
2014 René Ricard, American poet, painter, and critic (b. 1946)
2015 Monty Oum, American animator, director, and screenwriter (b. 1981)
2016 Murray Louis, American dancer and choreographer (b. 1926)
Holidays and observances
Christian Feast Day:
Astina (Syrian Church)
Brigid, patron saint of Ireland
February 1 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Forefeast of the Meeting of our Lord in the Temple.
Martyr Tryphon of Campsada near Apamea in Syria (250)
Martyr Theonas, with Two Children.
Venerable Peter of Galatia, hermit near Antioch in Syria (c. 403)
Venerable Vendemanius (Bendemanius), hermit of Bithynia (512)
Saint Anthony the Hermit, in Georgia (6th century)
Great-martyr Elijah of Heliopolis, (Elias the New, of Damascus) (799)
Saints David (784), Symeon (843), and George (844), Confessors of Mytilene.
Saint Basil I the Confessor, Archbishop of Thessalonica (862)
Saint Basil II the Synaxaristis, Archbishop of Thessalonica (c. 904)
Saint Timothy the Confessor.
Pre-Schism Western Saints
Martyrs Perpetua of Carthage, and the catechumens Saturus, Revocatus, Saturninus, Secundulus, and Felicitas at Carthage (202-203) (see also: March 7 in the West)
Saint Severus of Ravenna, Bishop of Ravenna, attended the Council of Sardica in 344 (348)
Saint Paul of Trois-Châteaux, Bishop of Trois-Châteaux in the Dauphiné (c. 405)
Venerable Brigid of Kildare (524)
Saint Darlugdach of Kildare, successor of St Brigid as second Abbess of Kildare in Ireland (c. 524)
Saint Ursus of Aosta, born in Ireland, he preached against Arianism in the south of France and later went to Aosta in Italy (6th century)
Saint Seiriol, Abbot of Penmon Priory (Anglesey) (6th century)
Saint Sigebert III, King of Austrasia (656)
Saint Severus of Avranches, Abbot and Bishop of Avranches (c. 690)
Saint Brigid the Younger, sister of St Andrew the Scot, Abbot of St. Donatus in Fiesole in Tuscany in Italy (9th century)
Saint Clarus of Seligenstadt, ascetic and hermit (c. 1048)
Post-Schism Orthodox Saints
Saint Tryphon, Bishop of Rostov (1468)
New Martyr Anastasius of Nauplion (1655)
The Four Martyrs of Megara: Polyeuctos, George, Adrianos and Platon, the "Newly-Revealed" (1754, 1998)
New Martyrs and Confessors
New Hieromartyr Peter Skipetrov, Archpriest, of Petrograd (1918) (see also: January 19)
New Hieromartyr Nicholas Mezentsev, Priest (1938)
Icon of the Mother of God "Sokolsky" (1854)