Post by Evon on Jan 30, 2015 2:07:42 GMT -5
January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar.
There are 335 days remaining until the end of the year
Days left until elections:
U.S. Debt Clock: www.usdebtclock.org/
435 Rome recognized the Vandal territories in Northwest Africa as "federati," in an effort to stave off their invasion of Italy. (The invasion was successfully postponed for 20 years.)
1018 Poland and the Holy Roman Empire conclude the Peace of Bautzen.
1536 Menno Simons (1496–1561) left the Roman Catholic church over his doubts about transubstantiation and converted to the Anabaptist movement, which he would soon led. The Mennonite churches are named after him.
Contemporary depiction of the 1607 flood (the church is thought to be St Mary's at Nash, near Newport)
1607 An estimated 200 square miles (51,800 ha) along the coasts of the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary in the Kingdom of England are destroyed by massive flooding, resulting in an estimated 2,000 deaths.
1648 Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster and Osnabrück is signed, ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain.
1649 King Charles I of England is beheaded. This day, January 30, 1649 was so bitterly cold that the Thames froze over. King Charles I of England was afraid that he might shiver and people think he was trembling from fear, so he donned an extra shirt. He chose his other clothes with care so that he might look his best. "I do not fear death," he said. "Death is not terrible to me. I bless my God I am prepared."
Despite the errors that brought Charles to the scaffold, there is no denying his obedience to the forms of faith. He knelt in prayer every morning of his reign, even on hunting days. But Charles could not get along with Parliament. Every Parliament sought to rebuke him before giving him money, and so he quickly dissolved them. The third Parliament, aggrieved by Charles' high-handed actions, managed to prepare what is known in England as "a petition of right," which it obliged him to sign before he dissolved it. He dissolved his fourth Parliament when it opposed taxes he levied which should have had Parliamentary approval. The king decided to rule without any parliament at all.
For eleven years he did. To raise money, he taxed ships. Calling this illegal, John Hampden, a member of Parliament, resisted paying, and the matter became a cause celebre, but a high court upheld the king, allowing him to continue the practice.
Charles raised bishop William Laud to the powerful Star Chamber and Court of Commissions from where he oppressed the king's opponents. Laud also tried to force a new prayer book on Scotland. Charles had long wanted to compel the Presbyterian Scots to accept a liturgy based on the Church of England's. Great numbers of Scots pledged to resist the changes. These "Covenanters" defeated Charles in battle.
Again Charles called a session of Parliament. It would not give him money until it stated the nation's grievances. Charles dissolved it. But after another defeat in Scotland, his financial straits forced him to call a Parliament in November, 1640. This was the famous Long Parliament that impeached Archbishop Laud and executed him. The House of Commons prepared a Grand Remonstrance against Charles. He entered Parliament with an armed force to arrest five members. The Commons called out London's militia for protection.
With the smell of war in the air, the queen fled to the Netherlands. Charles left London for York where noblemen gathered to his side. The Puritans, who had suffered much at Laud's hands, took Parliament's side. After five years of Civil war, Charles fell into Parliament's hands. He escaped and rallied the Scots to his cause, but Oliver Cromwell defeated them and Charles again became the prisoner of Parliament.
The Commons appointed a commission of sixty-seven to try Charles. Most members of Parliament were opposed to killing the king. When the death sentence was passed, only half the commissioners were present--and some of them balked at signing. There was great difficulty finding executioners. Cromwell overcame these and other obstacles and brought Charles out to be executed.
The king had planned to speak to the crowd before he died, but barriers around the scaffold prevented them from seeing him. When he saw the block, he asked for a higher one. None could be found. A bystander felt the edge of the axe. Charles pleaded that he not dull the blade. To the fifteen men who were in earshot, he read his last speech. Turning to Bishop Juxson he said, "Remember," and gave him his bedside prayer book. Then he tucked his hair under a white cap so that it might not impede the blade. "I am going from a corruptible to an incorruptible crown, where no disturbance can be," said the king.
The executioner asked pardon. Charles said, "The king cannot pardon a subject who wilfully sheds his blood," then added, "I pray you, do not put me to pain." He prayed a last prayer and lay down flat with his neck on the block. The crowd saw the axe flash high and heard its thud. With a single voice, they groaned. Their willful but brave king was dead.
A 1656 Samuel Cooper portrait of Cromwell
1661 Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England is ritually executed two years after his death, on the anniversary of the execution of the monarch he himself deposed.
1667 The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth cedes Kiev, Smolensk, and left-bank Ukraine to the Tsardom of Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo
1750 In Colonial America, Rev. Jonathan Mayhew of Boston delivered a sermon entitled, "Discourse Concerning Unlimited Submission." The sermon attacked both the divine right of kings and ecclesiastical absolutism. As we witness the power of Islamic clergymen to sway masses of faithful Muslims, it reminds us of the impact religious ideas have had in our own history. Pope Urban preached a rousing sermon and launched the first crusade. John Knox urged discouraged Scottish rebels not to rely on their own arms but on God and the Scottish reformers took new heart. From his Boston pulpit, Jonathan Mayhew called for the repeal of the stamp act and the stamp riots followed.
Whatever one thinks of Jonathan Mayhew's theology--it was so liberal that the Boston Association of Congregational Ministers would not admit him--no one can deny his influence on the American Revolution. Not only did he preach the sermon that led to the stamp riots, but he preached another which John Adams called "the spark that ignited the American Revolution."
It was on this day, January 30, 1750 that Jonathan Mayhew preached his Discourse Concerning Unlimited Submission and Non-resistance to the Higher Powers. In it he took to task those who used some words by Paul in the New Testament to argue that the colonists must obey King George III whether he was right or wrong. Paul had written that we are to obey authorities. They are instituted by God, serve God, and exist to do us good. We should obey not just for fear of punishment but for conscience's sake.
"Here the apostle argues, that those who resist a reasonable and just authority, which is agreeable to the will of God, do really resist the will of God himself; and will, therefore, be punished by him," said Mayhew. "But how does this prove, that those who resist a lawless, unreasonable power, which is contrary to the will of God, do therein resist the will and ordinance of God? Is resisting those who resist God's will, the same thing with resisting God?"
"Common tyrants, and public oppressors, are not intitled to obedience from their subjects, by virtue of any thing here laid down by the inspired apostle." To illustrate his point Mayhew raises a similar case. "Suppose God requires a family of children, to obey their father and not to resist him...Suppose this parent at length runs distracted, and attempts, in his mad fit, to cut all his children's throats: Now, in this case, is not the reason before assigned, why these children should obey their parent while he continued of a sound mind, namely, their common good, a reason equally conclusive for disobeying and resisting him, since he is become delirious, and attempts their ruin?"
Mayhew's lengthy, carefully reasoned sermon was printed and widely read in the colonies. Many Americans accepted its arguments. Among them were John Adams, James Otis, and Josiah Quincey, leaders of the revolution.
1781 Maryland finally ratifies Articles of Confederation. On this day in 1781, Maryland becomes the 13th and final state to ratify the Articles of Confederation, almost three years after the official deadline given by Congress of March 10, 1778.
The Continental Congress drafted the Article of Confederation in a disjointed process that began in 1776. The same issues that would later dog the Constitutional Convention of 1787 befuddled the Congress during the drafting. Large states wanted votes to be proportional according to population, while small states wanted to continue with the status quo of one vote per state. Northern states wished to count the southern states' slave population when determining the ratio for how much funding each state would provide for Congressional activities, foremost the war. States without western land claims wanted those with claims to yield them to Congress.
In November 1777, Congress put the Articles before the states for ratification. As written, the Articles made the firm promise that "Each state retains its sovereignty." Western claims remained in the hands of the individual states and states' support to Congress was determined based only on their free population. Each state carried only one vote.
Virginia was the only state to ratify the Articles by the 1778 deadline. Most states wished to place conditions on ratification, which Congress refused to accept. Ten further states ratified during the summer of 1778, but small states with big neighbors and no land claims--Delaware, New Jersey and Maryland--still refused. Maryland held out the longest, only ratifying the Articles after Virginia relinquished its claims on land north of the Ohio River to Congress. The Articles finally took effect on March 1, 1781.
The problematic Articles of Confederation remained the law of the land for only eight years before the Constitutional Convention rejected them in favor of a new, more centralized form of federal government. They crafted the current U.S. Constitution, which took effect in 1789, giving the federal government greater authority over the states and creating a bicameral legislature.
1788 Pioneer American Methodist bishop Francis Asbury wrote in his journal: 'Alas for the rich! They are so soon offended.'
1790 The first boat specializing as a lifeboat is tested on the River Tyne.
1806 The original Lower Trenton Bridge (also called the Trenton Makes the World Takes Bridge), which spans the Delaware River between Morrisville, Pennsylvania and Trenton, New Jersey, is opened.
1820 Edward Bransfield sights the Trinity Peninsula and claims the discovery of Antarctica.
The suspension bridge, over the Menai c.1840
1826 The Menai Suspension Bridge, considered the world's first modern suspension bridge, connecting the Isle of Anglesey to the north West coast of Wales, is opened.
1835 In the first assassination attempt against a President of the United States, Richard Lawrence attempts to shoot president Andrew Jackson, but fails and is subdued by a crowd, including several congressmen.
1841 A fire destroys two-thirds of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.
1847 Yerba Buena, California is renamed San Francisco.
1858 The first Hallé concert is given in Manchester, England, marking the official founding of The Hallé orchestra as a full-time, professional orchestra.
1862 The first American ironclad warship, the USS Monitor is launched.
William E. Dodge
1867 The American branch of the Evangelical Alliance was organized at the Bible House in New York City, with William E. Dodge elected president.
Alexander Murdoch Mackay
1877 Responding to Henry Stanley’s plea for “some pious, practical missionary” to follow up David Livingstone’s missionary foray into Uganda, three members of Alexander Mackay’s (1849–1890) Church Missionary Society team arrived at King Mutesa’s court.
Photographs of Crown Prince Rudolph and Baroness Mary Vetsera
1889 Archduke Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian crown, is found dead with his mistress Baroness Mary Vetsera in the Mayerling.
1902 The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance is signed in London.
1908 Indian pacifist and leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is released from prison by Jan C. Smuts after being tried and sentenced to two months in jail earlier in the month.
1911 The destroyer USS Terry makes the first airplane rescue at sea saving the life of Douglas McCurdy ten miles from Havana, Cuba.
1911 The Canadian Naval Service becomes the Royal Canadian Navy.
1913 The British House of Lords rejects the Irish Home Rule Bill
1933 Adolf Hitler is sworn in as Chancellor of Germany.
1933 The Lone Ranger debuts on Detroit radio. With the stirring notes of the William Tell Overture and a shout of "Hi-yo, Silver! Away!" The Lone Ranger debuts on Detroit's WXYZ radio station.
The creation of station-owner George Trendle and writer Fran Striker, the "masked rider of the plains" became one of the most popular and enduring western heroes of the 20th century. Joined by his trusty steed, Silver, and loyal Indian scout, Tonto, the Lone Ranger sallied forth to do battle with evil western outlaws and Indians, generally arriving on the scene just in time to save an innocent golden-haired child or sun-bonneted farm wife.
Neither Trendle nor Striker had any connections to or experience with the cowboys, Indians, and pioneers of the real West, but that mattered little to them. The men simply wanted to create an American version of the masked swashbuckler made popular by the silent movie actor Douglas Fairbanks in The Mark of Zorro, arming their hero with a revolver rather than a sword. Historical authenticity was far less important to the men than fidelity to the strict code of conduct they established for their character. The Lone Ranger never smoked, swore, or drank alcohol; he used grammatically correct speech free of slang; and, most important, he never shot to kill. More offensive to modern historical and ethnic sensibilities was the Indian scout Tonto, who spoke in a comical Indian patois totally unrelated to any authentic Indian dialect, uttering ludicrous phrases like "You betchum!"
Historical accuracy notwithstanding, the radio program was an instant hit. Children liked the steady stream of action and parents approved of the good moral example offered by the upstanding masked man. Soon picked up for nationwide broadcast over the Mutual Radio Network, over 20 million Americans were tuning into The Lone Ranger three times a week by 1939. In an early example of the power of marketing tie-ins, the producers also licensed the manufacture of a vast array of related products, including Lone Ranger guns, costumes, books, and a popular comic strip.
The Lone Ranger made a seemingly effortless transition from radio to motion pictures and television. The televised version of The Lone Ranger, staring Clayton Moore as the masked man, became ABC's first big hit in the early 1950s. Remaining on the air until 1957, the program helped define the golden age of the TV Western and inspired dozens of imitators like The Range Rider, The Roy Rogers Show, and The Adventures of Wild Bill Hickok. Although the Lone Ranger disappeared from American television and movie screens by the 1960s, he lived on in a popular series of comic books well into the 1970s
1942 World War II: Japanese forces invade the island of Ambon in the Dutch East Indies.
1943 World War II: Second day of the Battle of Rennell Island. The USS Chicago is sunk and a U.S. destroyer is heavily damaged by Japanese torpedoes.
1943 On this day, the British Royal Air Force begins a bombing campaign on the German capital that coincides with the 10th anniversary of Hitler's accession to power.
The Casablanca Conference, held from January 14 to 23, saw Prime Minister Winston Churchill, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and the Combined Chiefs of Staff meet in Morocco to discuss future war strategy following on the success of the North African invasion, which heralded the defeat of Vichy forces. One of the resolutions of the conference was to launch a combined and sustained strategic bombing effort against the Germans. Strategic bombing was the policy of using bombers to destroy an enemy's warmaking capacity, also referred to as "area bombing." Churchill described it as an "absolutely devastating, exterminating attack by very heavy bombers...upon the Nazi homeland."
To celebrate the anniversary of Hitler's 1933 appointment to the office of chancellor by then-President Paul von Hindenburg, both propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels and head of the Luftwaffe Hermann Goering planned to give radio addresses to the German masses. Goebbels intended to bolster morale by hailing an impending victory in Russia: "A thousand years hence, every German will speak with awe of Stalingrad and remember that it was there that Germany put the seal on her victory." As the speeches were broadcast, RAF fighters rained bombs on Berlin, the beginning of devastating attacks on German cities that would last until the very end of the war. To make matters even worse for the Germans, the next day a massive surrender of German troops occurred at Stalingrad.
1944 World War II: The Battle of Cisterna, part of Operation Shingle, begins in central Italy.
1944 World War II: American troops land on Majuro, Marshall Islands.
1945 World War II: The Wilhelm Gustloff, overfilled with German refugees, sinks in the Baltic Sea after being torpedoed by a Soviet submarine, killing approximately 9,500 people in what is the deadliest known maritime disaster.
1945 World War II: Raid at Cabanatuan: One hundred twenty-six American Rangers and Filipino resistance fighters liberate over 500 Allied prisoners from the Japanese-controlled Cabanatuan POW camp.
1948 Mahatma Gandhi known for his non-violent freedom struggle, is assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu extremist.
1956 African-American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.'s home is bombed in retaliation for the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
1959 MS Hans Hedtoft, said to be the safest ship afloat and "unsinkable" like the RMS Titanic, strikes an iceberg on her maiden voyage and sinks, killing all 95 aboard.
1964 Ranger program: Ranger 6 is launched.
1964 In a bloodless coup, General Nguyễn Khánh overthrows General Dương Văn Minh's military junta in South Vietnam.
1965 Some 1 million people attend former Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill's funeral, the biggest in the United Kingdom up to that point.
1968 Vietnam War: Tet Offensive launch by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army against South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies.
1969 US/CanadaISIS 1 launched to study ionosphere
1969 The Beatles' last public performance, on the roof of Apple Records in London. The impromptu concert is broken up by the police.
1971 Carole King's Tapestry album is released to become the longest charting album by a female solo artist and sell 24 million copies worldwide.
1972 The Troubles: Bloody Sunday --British Paratroopers open fire on and kill fourteen unarmed civil rights/anti-internment marchers in Derry, Northern Ireland.
1972 Pakistan withdraws from the Commonwealth of Nations.
1973 Jury finds Watergate defendants Liddy & McCord guilty on all counts
1975 The Monitor National Marine Sanctuary is established as the first United States National Marine Sanctuary.
1979 A Varig 707-323C freighter, flown by the same commander as Flight 820, disappears over the Pacific Ocean 30 minutes after taking off from Tokyo.
1982 Richard Skrenta writes the first PC virus code, which is 400 lines long and disguised as an Apple boot program called "Elk Cloner".
1989 Closure of the American embassy in Kabul, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
1989 Joel Steinberg found guilty of 1st degree manslaughter of daughter
1993 67th Australian Open Women's Tennis Monica Seles beat Steffi Graf (46 63 62)
1994 68th Australian Open Women's Tennis Steffi Graf beats Arantxa Sanchez Vicario (60 62)
1994 82nd Australian Open Men's Tennis Pete Sampras beats Todd Martin (76 64 64)
1994 Dan Jansen skates world record 500m (35.76) On this day in 1994, the American speed skater Dan Jansen sets a new world record of 35.76 at the World Sprint Championships in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Born in 1965 in Wisconsin, Jansen had been the youngest skater to compete at the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, where he came in fourth place in the 500 meter event. Favored to win in Calgary in 1988, Jansen was devastated by the death of his sister Jane from leukemia on the day he was scheduled to race in the 500 meter final. He raced that night in hopes of winning in her honor, but fell 100 meters into the race. Four days later, he fell again during the 1000 meter event, and left Calgary without a medal. In Albertville, France, in 1992, Jansen came up short again, finishing fourth in the 500 meters and 26th in the 1000.
In December 1992, Jansen became the first man ever to skate 500 meters in less than 36 seconds, when he set a new world record mark of 35.92 seconds in Hamar, Norway. The January 30, 1993 finish marked the sixth time that Jansen had either tied or broke the world record in the 500 meters. He had come to dominate that event and the 1,000 meters in international competition, but an Olympic medal still eluded him.
The next Winter Olympics--Jansen’s fourth--were held in 1994, in Lillehammer, Norway. By that time, he had won an overall total of seven World Cup titles and set seven world records. After he slipped in the 500 meter skate, it looked like Jansen’s hopes for Olympic glory might be shattered. When he took to the ice for the 1,000 meter event four days later, however, Jansen turned things around, skating to a world record finish of 1:12.43 to finally win Olympic gold. He retired from competition after the Lillehammer games.
1994 Péter Lékó becomes the youngest chess grandmaster.
1995 Workers from the National Institutes of Health announce the success of clinical trials testing the first preventive treatment for sickle-cell disease.
2000 Off the coast of Ivory Coast, Kenya Airways Flight 431 crashes into the Atlantic Ocean, killing 169.
2003 The Kingdom of Belgium officially recognizes same-sex marriages
2013 Naro-1 becomes the first carrier rocket launched by South Korea.
58 BC Livia, Roman wife of Augustus (d. 29)
1615 Thomas Rolfe, American son of Pocahontas (d. 1675)
1754 John Lansing, Jr., American lawyer and politician (d. 1829)
1797 Edwin Vose Sumner Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1863
1806 Peter Perkins Pitchlynn (January 30, 1806 – January 17, 1881), of the Hat-choo-tuck-nee ("Snapping Turtle") clan, was a Choctaw chief of Choctaw and Anglo-American ancestry. He was principal chief of the Choctaw from 1864-1866 and surrendered to the Union on behalf of the nation at the end of the Civil War.
Educated in Choctaw culture and American schools, in 1825 he helped found a school for Choctaw boys: the Choctaw Academy in Kentucky. He also worked to reduce the sale of alcohol in their territory. After removal to Indian Territory in the 1830s, he was appointed by the National Council in 1845 as the Choctaw Delegate to Washington, D.C. At the time, the Nation was proposing to be recognized by the US Congress as a territory.
After the war, Pitchlynn returned to Washington, D.C., to represent Choctaw interests and work for concessions from the government for the Choctaw lands sold under pressure to the United States in 1830 during Indian Removal. He died in Washington, D.C. and is buried there.
1816 Phineas R. Hunt, missionary printer to Madras, India (1839), and Peking, China (1868), in Arlington, Vermont (d. 29 May 1878).
1816 Nathaniel Prentice Banks, American politician, 24th Governor of Massachusetts, Major General (Union volunteers) in Waltham, Massachusetts. Banks was a political general--he had few military skills, but as an anti-slave Republican from Massachusetts, he helped President Abraham Lincoln's administration maintain support in that region.
Banks was born to a cotton mill worker and never attended college. Nonetheless, he studied law, languages, and oratory, and became a lawyer by the late 1830s. He served in the state legislature, and was speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. In 1853, Banks was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. From 1858 to 1861, he served as governor of his home state, and was considered a popular and effective leader.
When the Civil War began, Banks was commissioned as a general despite his complete lack of military experience. This was typical during the war. There were simply not enough qualified men to fill the positions, and the Lincoln administration had to make appointments with, in part, political motives in mind. Banks commanded an army in the Shenandoah Valley during Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's campaign there in 1862. He suffered two serious defeats to Jackson at Front Royal and Winchester, and his army lost so many supplies that the Confederates began calling him "Commissary Banks." In August, Banks commanded a corps at the Battle of Cedar Mountain, Virginia. He again found himself pitted against Jackson, and again lost to him. Banks was forced to retreat to Washington, D.C.
Banks was then sent to New Orleans to command the Department of the Gulf. In 1863, he managed to capture Port Hudson, a key Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River. His victory was difficult and came with a high price in casualties, but it was the general's first victory of the war. In 1864, Banks commanded the Red River Campaign in northern Louisiana, which turned into a complete Union disaster. He did not command troops in the field again. Banks also managed the reconstruction of Louisiana during the war, and his record in doing so was also suspect. He used the state's antebellum constitution to govern and simply deleted references to slavery, which did little to promote the rights of freed slaves. In fact, Banks actually forced many black "vagrants" back to work on plantations.
After the war, Banks served two more stints in Congress and also spent time as a U.S. marshall. He was serving in Congress when he died in 1894 at age 78.
1829 Alfred Cummings Georgia, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1910
1835 Oliver Edwards Brevet Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1904
1839 Samuel Chapman Armstrong (d May 11, 1893) American educator and a commissioned officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He is best remembered for his work after the war as the founder and first principal of the normal school which is now Hampton University.
1841 George Alfred Townsend Civil War journalist, Townsend wrote under the pen name "Gath", which was derived by adding an "H" to his initials, and inspired by the biblical passage II Samuel 1:20, "Tell it not in Gath, publish it not in the streets of Askalon." (d 1914)
1861 Charles Martin Loeffler, French-American violinist and composer (d. 1935)
1862 Walter Damrosch, German-American conductor and composer (d. 1950)
1864 James Mitchel, Irish-American weight thrower (d. 1921)
1866 Gelett Burgess, American author, poet, and critic (d. 1951)
1882 Franklin D. Roosevelt, American politician, 32nd President of the United States (d. 1945)
1899 Max Theiler English/US microbiologist, developed a vaccine against yellow fever in 1937. (Nobel 1951)
1909 Saul David Alinsky Chicago IL, radical writer, American community organizer, and writer. He is generally considered to be the founder of modern community organizing. (John L Lewis, Rules for Radicals)
1911 Roy Eldridge, American trumpet player (d. 1989)
1912 Francis Schaeffer, American pastor and theologian (d. 1984)
1912 Barbara W. Tuchman, American historian and author (Pulitzer: Guns of August) (d. 1989)
1914 David Wayne, American actor (d. 1995)
1918 David Opatoshu, American actor (d. 1996)
1919 Fred Korematsu, Japanese-American activist (d. 2005)
1920 Carwood Lipton, American lieutenant (d. 2001)
1920 Delbert Mann, American director and producer (d. 2007)
1922 Dick Martin, American comedian, actor, and director (d. 2008)
1923 Walt Dropo, American baseball player (d. 2010)
1923 Marianne Ferber, American feminist economist (d. 2013)
1924 Lloyd Alexander, American author (d. 2007)
1924 Sailor Art Thomas, American bodybuilder and wrestler (d. 2003)
1925 Douglas Engelbart, American computer scientist, invented the computer mouse (d. 2013)
1925 Dorothy Malone, American actress
1927 Ahmed Abdul-Malik, American bassist and oud player (d. 1993)
1928 Harold Prince, American director and producer
1930 Sandy Amorós, Cuban baseball player (d. 1992)
1930 Samuel Byck, American criminal (d. 1974)
1930 Gene Hackman, American actor and author
1931 Allan W. Eckert, American historian and author
1933 Louis Rukeyser, American journalist (d. 2006)
1935 Richard Brautigan, American author and poet (d. 1984)
1936 F. Vernon Boozer, American politician
1937 Ed Hansen, American director and screenwriter (d. 2005)
1941 Gregory Benford, American astrophysicist and author
1941 Dick Cheney, American politician, 46th Vice President of the United States
1942 Marty Balin, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Jefferson Airplane, Jefferson Starship, and KBC Band)
1943 Davey Johnson, American baseball player and manager
1944 Lynn Harrell, American cellist
1945 Michael Dorris, American author (d. 1997)
1949 Peter Agre, American physician and biologist, Nobel Prize laureate
1950 John Cleveland, American politician
1950 Ahmed Tijani Ben Omar, Ghanaian-American scholar and Imam
1950 Randy Brooks Bronx, actor (Rituals, Renegades, Brothers & Sisters, Reservoir Dogs)
1950 Trinidad Silva, American actor (d. 1988)
1951 Charles S. Dutton, American actor and director
1953 Fred Hembeck, American author and illustrator
1955 John Baldacci, American politician, 73rd Governor of Maine
1955 Tom Izzo, American basketball player and coach
1955 Curtis Strange, American golfer
1955 Judith Tarr, American author
1957 Polly Horvath, American-Canadian author
1957 Payne Stewart, American golfer (d. 1999)
1958 Brett Butler, American actress and producer
1959 Mark Eitzel, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (American Music Club, Toiling Midgets, The Undertow Orchestra, and The Naked Skinnies)
1959 Jody Watley, American singer-songwriter and producer (Shalamar)
1960 Tony O'Dell, American actor
1961 Dexter Scott King, American actor
1962 Abdullah II of Jordan
1963 Daphne Ashbrook, American actress
1964 Otis Smith, American basketball player
1965 Julie McCullough, American model and actress
1966 Neal Chase, American educator
1967 Jay Gordon, American singer-songwriter and producer (Orgy)
1968 Trevor Dunn, American bass player and songwriter (Mr. Bungle, Secret Chiefs 3, Fantômas, and Tomahawk)
1969 Carolyn Kepcher, American businesswoman
1971 Kimo von Oelhoffen, American football player
1972 Lupillo Rivera, American singer
1973 Jalen Rose, American basketball player
1976 Andy Milonakis, American actor and rapper
1976 Johnathan Lee Iverson the first African-American ringmaster of a major U.S. circus in 1999 at the age of 22 when he won the position at Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus.
1977 Dan Hinote, American ice hockey player
1977 Tom Malchow, American swimmer
1977 Deltha O'Neal, American football player
1978 John Patterson, American baseball player
1980 Josh Kelley, American singer-songwriter
1980 Wilmer Valderrama, American actor and producer
1981 Jonathan Bender, American basketball player
1984 Kid Cudi, American rapper, producer, and actor (WZRD)
1984 Jeremy Hermida, American baseball player
1985 Trae Williams, American football player
1986 Nick Evans, American baseball player
1988 Rob Pinkston, American actor
1989 Khleo, American actor and rapper
1990 Jake Thomas, American actor
1995 Thia Megia, American singer
2005 Prince Hashem bin Al Abdullah of Jordan
A mediaeval depiction of Bathild
680 Balthild, Frankish queen (b. 626) With quick fingers, the slave girl undid her hair from its long, flaxen braids. In moments, it looked as if it had never felt a comb. Hastily stripping off the attractive clothes she had worn while she attended noble ladies, she slipped into rags. When she had daubed her face with kitchen grime, her disguise was complete. From a beautiful lady's maid she had transformed herself into a dirty kitchen hand.
Bathilde was trying to escape marriage. Archimbold, mayor of the palace of the kings of France had announced he was going to take her as his wife.
Captured by Danish raiders and sold as a slave in France, the Anglo-Saxon captive, Bathilde served as a slave to the mayor's wife. When his wife died, he turned his eyes on modest and beautiful Bathilde, who had always shown herself cheerful and attentive to the needs of others. What her original name was, we do not know, for Bathilde means "Maiden of the female apartment." We would call her a maid in waiting. Archimbold learned to trust this Christian girl and made her his cupbearer.
Now Bathilde was having nothing to do with Archimbold's marriage scheme. Hiding behind her disguise, she escaped the Mayor's attention. Thinking she had run away, Archimbold married another woman. Then Bathilde breathed a sigh of relief. She scrubbed her face, changed her clothes and braided her hair. The sunny beauty of former days was back again.
King Clovis II noticed her. He asked for her hand in marriage. This time Bathilde did not hide. In 649, the nineteen-year-old girl became queen of France. This sudden rise to giddy heights did not rush to her head. Remembering her own trials as a slave, she continued in her pattern of serving others. She exerted all her energies to assist the poor and she encouraged Clovis to do good.
Six years and three sons later, Clovis died. Bathilde became regent of France. Free to do the good she would, she studied the problem of slavery and determined to outlaw it. One of her actions was to reduce the high taxes which forced poor families to sell children. Although she did not outlaw existing slaves, she made it illegal to buy or sell a slave in France; and she passed a law that any slave who was brought into the country immediately became free.
Furthermore, she hunted for children who had been sold into slavery, bought them and set them free.
In addition to this, Bathilde set out to improve French land. The best way to do this was to take unattached men and set them to cultivating wild lands and praying. Consequently, she founded a number of monasteries and these transformed the ruins of France.
As soon as Bathilde's oldest son was of age, she retired to an abbey where she served out the remainder of her life, waiting on others as she had always done. Tradition says she died on this day, January 30, 680. A humble slave, a gracious and far-seeing queen, France has good reason to honor this English-born woman. Pope Nicholas I canonized her as a saint.
1240 Pelagio Galvani, Leonese cardinal (b. 1165)
1314 Nicholas III of Saint Omer
1649 Charles I of England (b. 1600)
1730 Peter II of Russia (b. 1715)
1836 Betsy Ross, American seamstress, designed the American Flag (b. 1752)
1838 Osceola (b 1804), born as Billy Powell, became an influential leader of the Seminole in Florida. Of a mixed parentage including Creek, Scots-Irish, African American, and English; his mother raised him as a Creek by custom under the tribe's matrilineal kinship system. When he was a child, they migrated to Florida with other Red Stick refugees after their defeat in 1814 in the Creek Wars.
In 1836, Osceola led a small group of warriors in the Seminole resistance during the Second Seminole War, when the United States tried to remove the tribe from their lands in Florida. He became an adviser to Micanopy, the principal chief of the Seminole from 1825 to 1849. Osceola led the Seminole resistance to removal until he was captured on October 21, 1837, by deception, under a flag of truce, when he went to a meeting spot near Fort Peyton for peace talks. He was imprisoned first at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, then transported to Fort Moultrie in Charleston, South Carolina,where he died a few months later of causes reported as an internal infection or malaria. Because of his renown, Osceola attracted visitors in prison there as well as portrait painters, including George Catlin, who painted perhaps the most well-known image of the Seminole leader.
1849 Jonathan Alder, American farmer (b. 1773)
1880 Frederick Oakeley (b 5 September 1802) English Roman Catholic convert, priest, and author. He was ordained in the Church of England in 1828 and in 1845 converted to Catholicism, becoming Canon of Westminster in 1852. One of the Tractarian authors during the Oxford Movement (which advocated that certain Roman Catholic practices be restored in the Church of England.) His involvement with the movement created great controversy, leading to his resignation from the Church of England in 1845. He is now best known for his translation of Adeste Fideles (O Come All Ye Faithful) into English.
1888 Asa Gray (b November 18, 1810) US botanist, one of the most important American botanists of the 19th century. He was instrumental in unifying the taxonomic knowledge of the plants of North America. Of Gray's many works on botany, the most popular was his Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States, from New England to Wisconsin and South to Ohio and Pennsylvania Inclusive. This book, known simply as Gray's Manual, has gone through a number of editions with botanical illustrations by Isaac Sprague, and remains a standard in the field.
1904 George Minor (b. 7 December 1845), American Baptist sacred music publisher
1926 Barbara La Marr, American actress (b. 1896)
1934 Frank Nelson Doubleday, American publisher, founded the Doubleday Publishing Company (b. 1862)
1948 Mahatma Gandhi, Indian lawyer, philosopher, and activist (b. 1869)
1948 Orville Wright, American pilot and engineer, co-founded the Wright Company (b. 1871)
1956 Charles Edward Taylor (May 24, 1868 – January 30, 1956) American inventor, mechanic and machinist. He built the first aircraft engine used by the Wright brothers and was a vital contributor of mechanical skills in the building and maintaining of early Wright engines and airplanes.
1980 Professor Longhair, American singer-songwriter and pianist (b. 1918)
1982 Lightnin' Hopkins, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1912)
1987 Harold Loeffelmacher, American singer and bandleader (Six Fat Dutchmen) (b. 1905)
1991 John Bardeen, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1908)
1991 Clifton C. Edom, American photographer and educator (b. 1907)
1991 John McIntire, American actor (b. 1907)
1998 Richard Cassilly, American tenor (b. 1927)
1999 Huntz Hall, American actor (b. 1919)
1999 Ed Herlihy, American journalist (b. 1909)
2001 Joseph Ransohoff, American surgeon (b. 1915)
2005 Wes Wehmiller, American bass player (Missing Persons) (b. 1971)
2006 Coretta Scott King, American author and activist (b. 1927)
2007 Sidney Sheldon, American author and screenwriter (b. 1917)
2008 Marcial Maciel, Mexican priest, founded the Legion of Christ and Regnum Christi (b. 1920)
2009 John Gordy, American football player (b. 1935)
2009 H. Guy Hunt, American politician, 49th Governor of Alabama (b. 1933)
2009 Ingemar Johansson, Swedish boxer (b. 1932)
2010 Aaron Ruben, American director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1914)
2012 Bill Wallace, American author and educator (b. 1947)
2013 Patty Andrews, American singer (The Andrews Sisters) (b. 1918)
2013 Ann Rabson, American singer, pianist, and guitarist (Saffire – The Uppity Blues Women) (b. 1945)
2013 George Witt, American baseball player (b. 1931)
2014 Danielle Downey, American golfer and coach (b. 1980)
2014 The Mighty Hannibal, American singer-songwriter and producer (b. 1939)
2014 William Motzing, American composer and conductor (b. 1937)
2014 Arthur Rankin, Jr., American director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1924)
2014 Suzanne Scotchmer, American economist and academic (b. 1950)
2015 Carl Djerassi, Austrian-American chemist, author, and playwright (b. 1923)
Holidays and observances
Christian Feast Day:
Anthony the Great (Coptic Church)
Hippolytus of Rome
Charles I of England (Commemoration, Anglicanism, e.g., Society of King Charles the Martyr)
Three Holy Hierarchs (Eastern Orthodox)
January 30 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Synaxis of the Three Holy Hierarchs:
Saint Basil the Great, Saint Gregory the Theologian, and Saint John Chrysostom.
Hieromartyr Hippolytus, priest, of Antioch, martyred in the period of the heretical Novatianists.
Hieromartyr Hippolytus of Rome, Bishop of Rome, and those with him:
Martyrs Censorinus, Sabinus, Ares (Aares), the virgin Chryse (Chryse of Rome), Felix, Maximus, Herculianus, Venerius, Styracius, Mennas, Commodus, Hermes, Maurus, Eusebius, Rusticus, Monagrius, Amandinus, Olympius, Cyprus, Theodore the Tribune, the priest Maximus, the deacon Archelaus, and the bishop Cyriacus, at Ostia, – under Roman Emperor Claudius Gothicus and a vicarius named Ulpius Romulus (269) (see also August 13 - Hippolytus of Rome - who may or may not be the same individual)
Venerable Zeno the Hermit, of Antioch (414), disciple of St. Basil the Great.
Martyr Theophilus the New, in Cyprus (784
Venerable Kyriakos, ascetic of the Great Lavra of St. Sabbas the Sanctified (7th-8th centuries)
Saint Peter I of Bulgaria, King of Bulgaria (969)
Pre-Schism Western Saints
Saint Martina of Rome, a martyr in Rome under Alexander Severus (228)
Saint Savina of Milan (Sabina), born in Milan, she ministered to martyrs in prison and buried their bodies during the persecution of Diocletian (311)
Saint Armentarius of Antibes, first Bishop of Antibes in Provence in France (ca. 451)
Martyrs Felician, Philippian and Companions, a group of one hundred and twenty-six martyrs in North Africa.
Saint Tudy (Tudclyd, Tybie), a virgin in Wales; Llandydie church in Dyfed is named after her (5th century)
Saint Adelgonda, foundress of Maubeuge Abbey (680)
Saint Balthildes, Queen of France (680)
Saint Armentarius of Pavia, Bishop of Pavia (ca. 711)
Saint Amnichad (Amnuchad), a monk and then a hermit at Fulda monastery (1043)
Post-Schism Orthodox Saints
Venerable Zeno the Faster, of the Kiev Caves Monastery (14th century)
New Martyr Hadji Theodore of Mytilene (Mt. Athos) (1784)
New Martyr Demetrius of Sliven (1841)
Saint Theophil, fool-for-Christ, of Svyatogorsk Monastery (1868)
Blessed Pelagia of Diveyevo Monastery, fool-for-Christ (1884)
New Martyrs and Confessors
New Hieromartyr Vladimir Kristenovich, Priest (1933)
New Martyr Stephen Nalivayko (1945)
Finding of the Wonderworking Icon of Panagia Evangelistria of Tinos (1823)
Commemoration of the deliverance of the island of Zakynthos from the plague by Saint George the Great-Martyr (1688)[