United States History: November 28 Nov 27, 2012 22:20:25 GMT -5
Post by Evon on Nov 27, 2012 22:20:25 GMT -5
1789 THANKSGIVING PROCLAMATION
By the President of the United States of America, a Proclamation.
Whereas it is the duty of all Nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and humbly to implore his protection and favor - and whereas both Houses of Congress have by their joint Committee requested me to recommend to the People of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many signal favors of Almighty God especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness.
Now therefore I do recommend and assign Thursday the 26th day of November next to be devoted by the People of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being, who is the beneficent Author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be - That we may then all unite in rendering unto him our sincere and humble thanks - for his kind care and protection of the People of this Country previous to their becoming a Nation - for the signal and manifold mercies, and the favorable interpositions of his Providence which we experienced in the course and conclusion of the late war - for the great degree of tranquility, union, and plenty, which we have since enjoyed - for the peaceable and rational manner, in which we have been enabled to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national One now lately instituted - for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed; and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge; and in general for all the great and various favors which he hath been pleased to confer upon us.
And also that we may then unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech him to pardon our national and other transgressions - to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually - to render our national government a blessing to all the people, by constantly being a Government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed - to protect and guide all Sovereigns and Nations (especially such as have shewn kindness unto us) and to bless them with good government, peace, and concord - To promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the encrease of science among them and us - and generally to grant unto all Mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as he alone knows to be best.
Given under my hand at the City of New York the third day of October in the year of our Lord 1789.
November 28 is the 332nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar.
There are 33 days remaining until the end of the year.
Days until coming elections:
U.S. Debt Clock: www.usdebtclock.org/
1518 Martin Luther appealed to the pope for a general council.
1520 Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan passed through the strait (of Magellan). With five vessels and about 265 men, Magellan sailed from Sanlucar de Barrameda on Sept. 20, 1519. Sighting the South American coast near Pernambuco, he searched for the suspected passage to the South Sea. In Jan., 1520, the Rio de la Plata was explored. While wintering in Patagonia (Mar.-Aug., 1520), he summarily put down a mutiny of some of his officers. On Oct. 21, Magellan discovered and entered the strait which bears his name, and on Nov. 28 he reached the Pacific. His fleet, by then consisting of three vessels, the Concepcion, the Trinidad, and the Victoria, sailed NW across the Pacific.
1729 Natchez Indians massacre 138 Frenchmen, 35 French women, and 56 children at Fort Rosalie, near the site of modern-day Natchez, Mississippi.
1777 After the judgment and loyalty of Silas Deane is called into question, Congress appoints John Adams to succeed Deane as the commissioner to France on this day in 1777.
Deane had been recalled to America by Congress after fellow diplomat Arthur Lee accused him of misappropriating French funds. Whereas Deane was born and raised in Connecticut and educated at Yale, Arthur Lee was a Virginian following the educational and career path of the British elite when revolutionary politics intervened. The lesser-known brother of Francis Lightfoot Lee and Richard Henry Lee, he left the colonies to enroll at the aristocratic boarding school Eton College in England. He then pursued medical studies at the prestigious University of Edinburgh in Scotland, receiving his degree in 1765. In 1766, Lee went to London and began legal studies at the equally renowned Temple Bar until 1770, when he began a legal practice in London at which he worked until the outbreak of revolution in 1776. It was then that he was named, along with Benjamin Franklin and Silas Deane, as an American commissioner to France.
Lee never got along with his two colleagues and instigated Deane's recall by accusing him of financial mismanagement and corruption. Deane's replacement, John Adams, was also a New Englander (although from Massachusetts and Harvard) and defended Deane. Nonetheless, Deane was unable to clear his name and was forced to live in exile until his death in 1789. In 1842, Congress reopened the investigation into Deane's accounts and, finding no evidence of misconduct, ordered that his heirs be paid $37,000 in reparations.
Despite personal vendettas among the members of the congressional delegation, they eventually managed to succeed in their goal of winning French support for the American war effort. On February 6, 1778, the Treaties of Amity and Commerce and Alliance were signed; they were ratified by the Continental Congress in May 1778. One month later, war between Britain and France formally began when a British squadron fired on two French ships. During the American Revolution, French naval fleets proved critical in the defeat of the British, which was assured at the Battle of Yorktown in October 1781.
1785 The Treaty of Hopewell was signed between the U.S. representative Benjamin Hawkins and the Cherokee Indians. The treaty laid out a western boundary for white settlement. The treaty gave rise to the sardonic Cherokee phrase of Talking Leaves, since they claimed that when the treaties no longer suited the Americans, they would blow away like talking leaves. Of note in the signatures of the Cherokee delegation were several from leaders of the Chickamauga/Lower Cherokee, including two from Chickamauga itself and one from Lookout Mountain Town, plus others.
1843 Ka Lā Hui: Hawaiian Independence Day - The Kingdom of Hawaii is officially recognized by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.
1862 American Civil War: In the Battle of Cane Hill, Union troops under General John Blunt defeat General John Marmaduke's Confederates.
1863 Thanksgiving was first observed as a regular American holiday. Proclaimed by President Lincoln the previous month, it was declared that the event would be observed annually, on the fourth Thursday in November.
1893 Women vote in a national election for the first time: the New Zealand general election.
1895 James Frank Duryea won the first American Automobile Race in Chicago, sponsored by the Chicago Times-Herald. With his brother Charles, Duryea invented the first automobile that was actually built and operated in the United States. On the day of the race, at 8:55 a.m., six "motocycles" left Chicago's Jackson Park for a 54 mile race to Evanston, Illinois and back through the snow. Duryea's Number 5 won the race in just over 10 hours averaging about 7.3 mph and was awarded a prize of $2,000. Following their victory in the race, the Duryeas manufactured thirteen copies of the Chicago car, and J. Frank Duryea developed the "Stevens-Duryea," an expensive limousine, which remained in production into the 1920s.
1905 ARM & HAMMER baking soda was trademark registered. In 1867, when James A. Church joined his father as a member of Church & Co., he brought along the ARM & HAMMER trademark. He began to use it on some of the baking soda packages that were being sold under various name labels. After a period of time, more people requested the package with the ARM & HAMMER symbol on it than all others and the ARM & HAMMER brand became our primary brand.
1907 In Haverhill, Massachusetts, scrap-metal dealer Louis B. Mayer opens his first movie theater.
1908 A mine explosion in the mining town of Marianna, Pennsylvania kills 154.
1914 World War I: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.
1919 Lady Astor is elected as a Member of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. She is the first woman to sit in the House of Commons. (Countess Markiewicz, the first to be elected, refused to sit.)
1921 New England was in the midst of a four day icestorm, their worst of record. Ice was more than three inches thick in many places following the storm, and property damage was in the millions of dollars. Northern New England received heavy snow with more than two feet reported in some areas. Overnight freezing rains continued through the day at Worcester MA while the wind increased to a gale. Streets become impassable even on foot, and whole towns were plunged into darkness without communication. The storm caused 20 million dollars damage to power lines, telephone lines and trees. (David Ludlum)
1922 The first skywriting in the U.S. was demonstrated over Times Square, New York City, by Capt. Cyril Turner of the Royal Air Force. Flying at an altitude of 10,000 feet, he wrote letters in white smoke a half-mile high. The smoke was formed by oil, controlled by levers, dropped on the plane's hot exhaust pipe. The message in the sky was, Hello, U.S.A. Call Vanderbilt 7200. (Turner first used skywriting for advertising for a newspaper's name, Daily Mail,over England in May 1922.) In New York, Major Jack Savage was trying to sell this advertising idea to a skeptical George W. Hill, head of the American Tobacco Co. Savage had invited Hill to the Vanderbilt Hotel. Hill was convinced by the 47,000 telephone calls in less than 3 hours.
1925 The Grand Old Opry, Nashville's famed home of country music, made its radio debut.The Grand Ole Opry is a weekly Saturday night country music radio program broadcast live on WSM radio in Nashville, Tennessee, and televised on Great American Country network. It is the oldest continuous radio program in the United States, having been broadcast on WSM since November 28, 1925. The Grand Ole Opry started out as the WSM Barn Dance in the new fifth floor radio station studio of the National Life & Accident Insurance Company in downtown Nashville. The featured performer on the first show was Uncle Jimmy Thompson, a fiddler who was then 77 years old. The announcer was program director George D. Hay, known on the air as "The Solemn Old Judge."
1929 Adm Richard E Byrd makes first South Pole flight. On November 29, the Floyd Bennett took off from Little America with Byrd as navigator, pilot Bernt Balchen, radio operator Harold June, and photographer Ashley McKinley. The plane was loaded with camera, food, and fuel. All items were weighed carefully and considered before loading, as all of this weight seriously reduced the plane's performance. Even with this carefully planning, the plane struggled as it neared the mountains. The difficult decision to throw part of the load from the plane was made. Byrd decided that the food would go, so they dumped one bag of food, and then another. Finally, the plane cleared the mountain. As the circled the South Pole, Byrd dropped the flag of the United States, weighted with a stone from the grave of Floyd Bennett. Then the party returned to the fuel depot at Mount Nansen, and returned to Little America.
1929 Ernie Nevers scores all 40 pts for Chicago Cards vs Bears (NFL record). Of all the records in the history of the National Football League, the one that has survived the longest was set on November 28, 1929, when Chicago Cardinals fullback Ernie Nevers, scored every one of his team's points (six touchdowns and four extra point conversions) in a 40-6 rout of the Chicago Bears.
1932 Groucho Marx performed on radio for the first time. The first episode of the show went out on the November 28, 1932. The original title was Beagle, Shyster and Beagle - Attorneys at Law. According to one of the episodes the 'Shyster' was named after a shyster lawyer who had run off with Beagle's wife and was included as a show of gratitude. In the show, Groucho plays Waldorf T Beagle/Flywheel, an attorney. In episode one he hires an assistant, who goes on to appear in every show, called Emmanuelle Ravelli played by Chico. Most of the episodes in the series deal with the firm's inability to get jobs and the horrendous handling of any jobs they do get. There are running themes as well - notably the fact that they're always broke and that Ravelli is an idiot.
1942 Nearly 500 die in a fire that destroyed Coconut Grove nightclub in Boston MA. On November 28th 1942, a huge fire occurred at the Cocoanut Grove Night Club in Boston. 492 people perished in total. The Cocoanut Grove was originally a speakeasy-an illegal bar during alcohol Prohibition-and some of its doors were bricked up or bolted shut. The main entrance to the club was only a revolving door. There were flammable decorations throughout the building including cloth drapery and paper palm trees. The club had a licensed capacity of 500 people, and on the night of the fire there were about 1000 people in the building.
1942 Coffee rationing began in the United States, lasting through the end of World War II.
1943 FDR, Churchill & Stalin met at Tehran to map out strategy. The Tehran Conference, took place in Tehran, Iran. It only came about after much pleading and threats from Roosevelt, who was weak and ailing at the time, but wished to strengthen the cooperation between the United States, Great Britain, and the USSR. The "Big Three" spent days wrangling about when Operation Overlord should take place, who should command it, and where operations should begin.
1944 "Meet Me in St. Louis," starring Judy Garland, opened in New York. Meet Me in St. Louis is a 1944 romantic musical from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer which tells the story of four sisters living in St. Louis at the time of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition World's Fair in 1904. It stars Judy Garland, Margaret O'Brien, Mary Astor, Lucille Bremer, Leon Ames, Tom Drake, June Lockhart, and Marjorie Main.
1948 The Polaroid Land Camera first went on sale, at a Boston department store. The 40 series, model 95 roll film camera went on sale for $89.75. This first model was sold through 1953, and was the first commercially successful self-deleveloping camera system. A sepia-coloured photograph took about one minute to produce. Edwin H. Land had previously demonstrated his invention of instant photography at a meeting of the Optical Society of America on 2 Feb 1947. His first commercial success came in 1939 with his invention of Polaroid filters for lenses in products such as ski goggles, sunglasses and slip-on sunglasses for optical glasses.
1950 A constitutional convention (comprised of 14 Protestant, Anglican, and Eastern Orthodox denominations) met in Cleveland, Ohio, and brought into being the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Today, the NCCC serves to administer disaster relief, strengthen family life, provide leadership training, and promote world peace.
1953 "Rags to Riches" by Tony Bennett topped the charts. Bennett's first hit, "Because of You," topped the charts in September 1951, succeeded at number one by his cover of Hank Williams' "Cold, Cold Heart." Following another five chart entries over the next two years, he returned to number one in November 1953 with "Rags to Riches." Its follow-up, "Stranger in Paradise" from the Broadway musical Kismet, was another chart-topper, and in 1954 Bennett also reached the Top Ten with Williams' "There'll Be No Teardrops Tonight" and "Cinnamon Sinner."
1956 Holding the #1 spot on the music charts: Guy Mitchell singing "Singing the Blues." In 1956, Marty Robbins was tearing up the country charts with "Singin' the Blues," on Columbia, and Miller chose Guy Mitchell to cut a pop-style cover of the song. Robbins' song was a huge hit as was, and might've been even bigger -- in those days, songs were regularly crossing over between the charts -- but Mitchell's version supplanted it on pop music stations, and on the charts, where it spent nine weeks at number one and sold well over a million copies.
1960 A severe storm produced waves 20 to 40 feet high on Lake Superior. Duluth, MN, was buried under a foot of snow, and clocked wind gusts to 73 mph. The northern shore of Lake Superior was flooded, and property along the shore was battered. Thousands of cords of pulpwood were washed into Lake Superior, and up to three feet of water flooded the main street of Grand Marais. Thunder accompanied the "nor'easter". (David Ludlum) (The Weather Channel)
1960 "Are You Lonesome Tonight?" by Elvis Presley topped the charts. Outside of publishing deals, this is the only song which Colonel Parker asked Elvis Presley specifically to record, as he believed it could be a hit again. He was right, it topped the charts in both the UK and US. Elvis copied Al Jolson's 1953 arrangement, including the spoken word middle section. Presley recorded this at around 4 in the morning during a marathon all night session along with 8 other songs. He turned down the lights while recording this in order to increase his emotional feeling.
1963 First million copy record prior to release "I Want to Hold Your Hand." John Lennon and Paul McCartney wrote this in Jane Asher's basement. Asher was an actress who became Paul's first high-profile girlfriend. This was the first Beatles song to catch on in America. In 1963, the Beatles became stars in England, but couldn't break through in the US. They couldn't get a major label to distribute their singles in America, so songs like "Love Me Do" and "She Loves You" were issued on small labels and flopped, even though they were hits in England.
1963 Beatles "She Loves You" returns to #1 on UK record chart. This popularized the phrase "yeah, yeah, yeah." Paul McCartney's dad wanted them to sing "yes, yes, yes" instead because he thought it sounded more dignified. It was an instant hit in the England, but not in America, where it was released on Swan records, the only US label that would take it. Swan put it out in September 1963, but while The Beatles were huge in England, they were still no big deal in America until February 1964.
1963 President Johnson announced that Cape Canaveral would be renamed Cape Kennedy. On November 28, 1963 President Lyndon B. Johnson announced in a televised address that Cape Canaveral would be renamed Cape Kennedy in memory of President John F. Kennedy, who was assassinated six days earlier. President Johnson said the name change had been sanctioned by the U.S. Board of Geographic Names. The Executive Order decreed that the NASA Launch Operations Center (LOC), including facilities on Merritt Island and Cape Canaveral, would be renamed the John F. Kennedy Space Center, NASA. That name change officially took effect on December 20, 1963.
1964 The United States launched the space probe Mariner 4 on a cruise to Mars. In 1964, Mariner 4 was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida. Making its Mars fly-by on July 14, 1965, this was the first satellite to transmit a close-up photograph of Mars. Flying as close as 9,846 km (6,118 miles), Mariner 4 revealed Mars to have a cratered, rust-colored surface, with signs on some parts of the planet that liquid water had once etched its way into the soil. It had various field and particle sensors and detectors, and a television camera, which took 22 television pictures covering about 1% of the planet. Initially stored on a 4-track tape recorder, these pictures took four days to transmit to Earth, showing the geologic and atmospheric processes at work on the planet over the eons. It continued in solar orbit for about 3 years.
1964 "Leader of the Pack" by Shangri-Las topped the charts. "Leader of the Pack" was a tale of young love, parental disapproval and death by motorbike. The sound of the motorcycle is the engineer's Harley Davidson. A young Billy Joel played the piano on this song.
1964 Mariner 4 was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida. Making its Mars fly-by on 14 Jul 1965, this was the first satellite to transmit a close-up photograph of Mars. Flying as close as 9,846 km (6,118 miles), Mariner 4 revealed Mars to have a cratered, rust-colored surface, with signs on some parts of the planet that liquid water had once etched its way into the soil. It had various field and particle sensors and detectors, and a television camera, which took 22 television pictures covering about 1% of the planet. Initially stored on a 4-track tape recorder, these pictures took four days to transmit to Earth, showing the geologic and atmospheric processes at work on the planet over the eons. It continued in solar orbit for about 3 years.
1964 Vietnam War: National Security Council members agree to recommend that U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson adopt a plan for a two-stage escalation of bombing in North Vietnam.
1965 Vietnam War: In response to U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson's call for "more flags" in Vietnam, Philippines President Elect Ferdinand Marcos announces he will send troops to help fight in South Vietnam.
1966The New Vaudeville Band received a gold record for "Winchester Cathedral." The group was masterminded by producer/songwriter Geoff Stephens, who in 1966 convened a group of mostly anonymous studio musicians (including drummer Henry Harrison) to record a jaunty, old-timey British number he'd written called "Winchester Cathedral." Though Stephens was credited as the vocalist on the track, it was later confirmed to be sung by ex-Ivy League/Flowerpot Men/First Class vocalist John Carter, who sang through his hands to simulate the sound of a megaphone (as on old Rudy Vallee records). "Winchester Cathedral" was an enormous hit, climbing into the British Top Five and going all the way to number one in America, where it also won a Grammy.
1967 The first pulsating radio source (pulsar) was detected by an alert graduate student, Jocelyn Bell, then working under the direction of Prof. A. Hewish at the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Cambridge, England. They were using a special radio telescope, a large array of 2,048 aerials covering an area of 4.4 acres. The discovery of these fascinating objects opened new horizons in studies as diverse as quantum-degenerate fluids, relativistic gravity and interstellar magnetic fields. Under extraordinary physical conditions, radiation is generated and appears pulsed with a clock-like precision synchronously with the pulsar rotational period. These periods range from 1.57 milliseconds to 5.1 sec.
1970 "I Think I Love You" by the Partridge Family topped the charts. In the premiere episode, the Partridge siblings ask their mom Shirley to help them make a record label demo. Recording "I Think I Love You," the family gets signed to a record label and has a number one record their first time out. "I Think I Love You," written by Tony Romeo and producer by Wes Farell, actually did become a number one million-selling pop hit, holding down the spot for three weeks beginning November 21, 1970.
1974 Bowie Kuhn suspends George Steinbrenner for 2 years as a result of Steinbrenner's conviction for illegal campaign contributions to Richard Nixon and others.
1975 As the World Turns and The Edge of Night, the final two American soap operas that had resisted going to pre-taped broadcasts, air their last live episodes.
1981 Alabama football coach Paul ‘Bear’ Bryant won his 315th victory. Bryant returned to Alabama as head coach in 1958 and became the winningest coach in NCAA Division I history in 1981, breaking A. A. Stagg's record of 314 victories. He spent 25 seasons at Alabama, winning 232 games while losing 46 and tying 9. Bryant's teams won or shared 13 Southeastern Conference championships and were named national champions in 1964, 1965, 1973, 1978, and 1979. He retired after the 1982 season with an overall record of 323-85-17. He holds the record for most major bowl games, 29, most bowl game wins, 15, and most losses, 12.
1981 "Physical" by Olivia Newton-John topped the charts. "Physical" was #1 in the US for 10 weeks. The only song to that point that stayed at #1 longer was Elvis Presley's "Hound Dog." A few radio stations in conservative communities (including Salt Lake City, Utah) banned this for it's veiled sexual content. This just added to the song's popularity and didn't hurt Olivia's reputation as one of the least offensive women in music.
1984 Over 250 years after their deaths, William Penn and his wife Hannah Callowhill Penn are made Honorary Citizens of the United States.
1987 Low pressure in the Middle Mississippi Valley produced a mixture of snow and sleet and freezing rain from the Central Plains to the Upper Mississippi Valley. Snowfall totals in Iowa ranged up to ten inches at Red Oak. Totals in Nebraska ranged up to 11 inches at Shickley. Freezing rain made roads treacherous in the Twin Cities area of southeastern Minnesota. Bitter cold arctic air invaded the Northern High Plains Region. Laramie WY was the cold spot in the nation with a morning low of 18 degrees below zero. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)
1987 "The Time of My Life" by Bill Medley & Jennifer Warnes topped the charts. When he was told that Jimmy Ienner was planning to have Bill Medley sing this, Franke Previte had mixed emotions. He wanted to sing it himself in the movie, but Medley, who was a member of The Righteous Brothers, was one of his all-time favorite singers. Medley wasn't interested in recording a soundtrack single after having a duet with Gladys Knight, "Loving on Borrowed Time." Two months of constant pressure from Ienner didn't change his mind until a scheduled recording session was moved from New York to Los Angeles and Jennifer Warnes agreed to sing in the session. Medley was a huge Warnes fan.
1988 Thunderstorms spawned five tornadoes in North Carolina during the early morning hours. A powerful tornado ripped through one of the most densely populated areas of Raleigh destroying hundreds of homes and damaging thousands more. The tornado killed four persons along its 83 mile track, and injured 154 others. Total damage was estimated at more than 77 million dollars. (Storm Data) (The National Weather Summary)
1988 Picasso's "Acrobat & Harlequin" sells for $38.46 million
1989 Strong Santa Ana winds prevailed across southern California. Winds gusted to 70 mph at the Rialto Airport, and several tractor- trailer trucks were overturned east of Los Angeles. High winds also buffeted the northeastern U.S., ushering arctic air into the region. Winds gusted to 60 mph at Montpelier VT, and reached 66 mph at Saint Albans VT. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)