United States History: November 27 Nov 27, 2012 18:00:04 GMT -5
Post by Evon on Nov 27, 2012 18:00:04 GMT -5
1789 THANKSGIVING PROCLAMATION
By the President of the United States of America, a Proclamation.
Whereas it is the duty of all Nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and humbly to implore his protection and favor - and whereas both Houses of Congress have by their joint Committee requested me to recommend to the People of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many signal favors of Almighty God especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness.
Now therefore I do recommend and assign Thursday the 26th day of November next to be devoted by the People of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being, who is the beneficent Author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be - That we may then all unite in rendering unto him our sincere and humble thanks - for his kind care and protection of the People of this Country previous to their becoming a Nation - for the signal and manifold mercies, and the favorable interpositions of his Providence which we experienced in the course and conclusion of the late war - for the great degree of tranquility, union, and plenty, which we have since enjoyed - for the peaceable and rational manner, in which we have been enabled to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national One now lately instituted - for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed; and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge; and in general for all the great and various favors which he hath been pleased to confer upon us.
And also that we may then unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech him to pardon our national and other transgressions - to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually - to render our national government a blessing to all the people, by constantly being a Government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed - to protect and guide all Sovereigns and Nations (especially such as have shewn kindness unto us) and to bless them with good government, peace, and concord - To promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the encrease of science among them and us - and generally to grant unto all Mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as he alone knows to be best.
Given under my hand at the City of New York the third day of October in the year of our Lord 1789.
November 27 is the 332nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar.
There are 34 days remaining until the end of the year.
Days until coming elections:
U.S. Debt Clock: www.usdebtclock.org/
602 Emperor Maurice is forced to watch his five sons be executed before being beheaded himself; their bodies are thrown into the sea and their heads are exhibited in Constantinople. Maurice is traditionally attributed as the author of the Strategikon, a manual of war which influenced European militaries for nearly a millennium
The capture of Jerusalem marked the First Crusade's success
1095 Pope Urban II began promoting the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.
1295 The first elected representatives from Lancashire are called to Westminster by King Edward I to attend what later became known as "The Model Parliament".
1703 The first Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed in the Great Storm of 1703.
1727 The foundation stone to the Jerusalem's Church in Berlin is laid.
1755 Land for the first Jewish settlement in America was purchased by Joseph Salvador, who bought 10,000 acres near Fort Ninety-Six, in the southern part of the Carolina Colony.
1815 Adoption of Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland.
1834 The electric motor was invented by Thomas Davenport. American inventor of what was probably the first commercially successful electric motor, which he used with great ingenuity to power a number of established inventions. Though several other inventors had experimented with motors, Davenport was the first to secure a US patent (No. 132 on 25 Feb 1837) for his direct current motor. He incorporated the concept of the electromagnet invented by Joseph Henry in a way that produced a rotary motion using his own idea of a commutator and brushes to control the direction of current flow.
1839 American Statistical Association organizes in Boston. Founded in Boston one wintry morning in 1839, the association continues a tradition of promoting excellence in statistics in its application to the frontiers of science, from biological to socio-economic to the physical sciences. . Present at the organizing meeting held in the rooms of the American Education Society, Number 15 Cornhill, Boston, Massachusetts, on November 27, 1839, were William Cogswell, teacher, fund-raiser for the ministry, and genealogist; Richard Fletcher, lawyer and U.S. Congressman; John Dix Fisher, physician and pioneer in medical reform; Oliver Peabody, lawyer, clergyman, poet, and editor; and Lemuel Shattuck, statistician, genealogist, publisher, and author of perhaps the most significant single document in the history of public health to that date.
1856 The Coup of 1856 leads to Luxembourg's unilateral adoption of a new, reactionary constitution.
1863 American Civil War: Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and several of his men escape the Ohio Penitentiary and return safely to the South.
1863 American Civil War: Battle of Mine Run – Union forces under General George Meade position against troops led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee.
1868 Indian Wars: Battle of Washita River United States Army Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer leads an attack on Cheyenne living on reservation land. Without bothering to identify the village or do any reconnaissance, Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer leads an early morning attack on a band of peaceful Cheyenne living with Chief Black Kettle.
Convicted of desertion and mistreatment of soldiers earlier that year in a military court, the government had suspended Custer from rank and command for one year. Ten months into his punishment, in September 1868, General Philip Sheridan reinstated Custer to lead a campaign against Cheyenne Indians who had been making raids in Kansas and Oklahoma that summer. Sheridan was frustrated by the inability of his other officers to find and engage the enemy, and despite his poor record and unpopularity with the men of the 7th Cavalry, Custer was a good fighter.
Sheridan determined that a campaign in winter might prove more effective, since the Indians could be caught off guard while in their permanent camps. On November 26, Custer located a large village of Cheyenne encamped near the Washita River, just outside of present-day Cheyenne, Oklahoma. Custer did not attempt to identify which group of Cheyenne was in the village, or to make even a cursory reconnaissance of the situation. Had he done so, Custer would have discovered that they were peaceful people and the village was on reservation soil, where the commander of Fort Cobb had guaranteed them safety. There was even a white flag flying from one of the main dwellings, indicating that the tribe was actively avoiding conflict.
Having surrounded the village the night before, at dawn Custer called for the regimental band to play "Garry Owen," which signaled for four columns of soldiers to charge into the sleeping village. Outnumbered and caught unaware, scores of Cheyenne were killed in the first 15 minutes of the "battle," though a small number of the warriors managed to escape to the trees and return fire. Within a few hours, the village was destroyed--the soldiers had killed 103 Cheyenne, including the peaceful Black Kettle and many women and children.
Hailed as the first substantial American victory in the Indian wars, the Battle of the Washita helped to restore Custer's reputation and succeeded in persuading many Cheyenne to move to the reservation. However, Custer's habit of boldly charging Indian encampments of unknown strength would eventually lead him to his death at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
1870 NY Times dubs baseball "The National Game"
1883 Fire engines were called out in New York City and New Haven, CT, as a result of the afterglow of the sunset due to vivid red ash from the Krakatoa Volcano explosion in August. (The Weather Channel)
1889 First permit issued to drive a car through Central Park (Curtis Brady)
1894 Mildred Lord was granted a patent for a washing machine ("in which a suds box is used with a swinging agitator").
1895 Alfred Nobel had his will drawn up in Paris, then deposited in a bank in Stockholm. In it, he provided for most of his fortune to be put in trust to establish the Nobel Prizes. As the inventor of new, more powerful explosives used in the weapons of war, he left a legacy to reward those persons who provided benefits to mankind. Prizes were to be established in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology, literature and a prize for peace. He died a year later, 10 Dec 1896, of a cerebral hemorrhage at his villa in San Remo, Italy, leaving this surprize at the opening of his will.
1898 The "Portland" storm raged across New England producing gale force winds along the coast and heavy snow inland. A foot of snow blanketed Boston MA, and 27 inches fell at New London CT. Winds at Boston gusted to 72 mph, and wind gusts to 98 mph were estimated at Block Island RI. A passenger ship, the S. S. Portland, sank off Cape Cod with the loss of all 191 persons aboard, and Boston Harbor was filled with wrecked ships. The storm wrecked 56 vessels resulting in a total of 456 casualties. (26th- 28th) (David Ludlum) (The Weather Channel)
1901 The U.S. Army War College is established.
1910 NY's Penn Station opens as world's largest railway terminal. The original Pennsylvania Station was an outstanding masterpiece of the Beaux-Arts style and one of the architectural jewels of New York City. The structure was made of pink granite and was marked by an imposing, sober colonnaded Doric order. The colonnades embodied the sophisticated integration of multiple functions and circulation of people and goods. McKim, Mead and White's Pennsylvania Station combined frank glass-and-steel train sheds and a magnificently-proportioned concourse with a breath-taking monumental entrance to New York City, immortalized in films.
1911 White House housekeeper frets over presidential waistline. On this day in 1911, Elizabeth Jaffray, a White House housekeeper, writes in her diary about a conversation she'd had with President William Howard Taft and his wife about the commander in chief's ever-expanding waistline.
According to the White House Historical Association, Jaffray was also quoted regarding Taft's growing girth in a 1926 book called Secrets of the White House. In it, she detailed a typical breakfast consumed by the 332-pound president: "two oranges, a twelve-ounce beefsteak, several pieces of toast and butter and a vast quantity of coffee with cream and sugar." When she and Taft's wife, Nellie, commented on his eating habits, he jovially responded that he was planning to go on a diet, but lamented the fact that "things are in a sad state of affairs when a man can't even call his gizzard his own."
Taft's 5' 11" frame carried anywhere between 270 pounds and 340 pounds over the course of his adult life. According to his biographers, he had to have his shoes tied by his valet and often got stuck in the White House bathtub and had to be lifted out by two or more men. Once, while visiting the czar of Russia, Taft split his pants seam while descending from a carriage.
Taft's weight did not stop him from serving a full term as president, nor did it prevent him from accepting a subsequent appointment as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1921—he was the first and only president to hold both offices. In fact, he successfully dropped down to 270 pounds after leaving the White House. Still, by today's body-mass indices, Taft remained clinically obese. Although he rarely drank more than the occasional beer and did not smoke, his obesity and a lifelong struggle with severe sleep apnea eventually took its toll. In March 1930, he retired as chief justice citing poor health. He died the following month from heart failure.
1914 German commander Paul von Hindenburg issues a triumphant proclamation from the battlefields of the Eastern Front, celebrating his army's campaign against Russian forces in the Polish city of Warsaw.
On November 1, Hindenburg had been appointed commander in chief of all German troops on the Eastern Front; his chief of staff was Erich Ludendorff, who had aided him in commanding several earlier victories against Russian forces in East Prussia. The new command, dubbed OberOst, had two objectives: First, they were to mount a counterattack in Poland while their colleague, Erich von Falkenhayn, managed German forces fighting in the Ypres region on the Western Front. Second, they were to balance the faltering Austrian command headed by Conrad von Hotzendorff. Earlier, Conrad had audaciously blamed his army's failure against Russia on a lack of sufficient German support and demanded that 30 new German divisions be sent east, a notion that Falkenhayn steadfastly opposed.
The German campaign against Warsaw, launched in early November 1914, aimed to draw Russian manpower and other resources away from their ferocious assault on the struggling army of Germany's ally, Austria-Hungary. In this it proved successful. The Germans scored several significant victories, most notably at the neighboring city of Lodz. Though the broader German assault ultimately failed, leaving Warsaw still in Russian hands, the kaiser rewarded Hindenburg by promoting him to field marshal, the highest rank in the German army.
In his statement of November 27, Hindenburg expressed his satisfaction with the results of the campaign and, of course, with his promotion. "I am proud at having reached the highest military rank at the head of such troops. Your fighting spirit and perseverance have in a marvelous manner inflicted the greatest losses on the enemy. Over 60,000 prisoners, 150 guns and about 200 machine guns have fallen into our hands, but the enemy is not yet annihilated. Therefore, forward with God, for King and Fatherland, till the last Russian lies beaten at our feet. Hurrah!"
1924 In New York City, the first Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is held.
1926 Restoration of Williamsburg, Virginia, begins. In 1926, with the financial support of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., a large-scale restoration of the city was begun; 700 buildings were removed, 83 were renovated, and 413 were rebuilt on their original sites. Williamsburg retains its colonial appearance, with green formal gardens and many craft shops where revived trades are practiced. Among the historic structures are the colonial capitol, Raleigh Tavern, rendezvous of Revolutionary patriots; the courthouse of 1770; the Bruton Parish Church (1710-15); the governor's palace, the public gaol, and the magazine.
1926 Louis ‘Satchmo’ Armstrong recorded "You Made Me Love You" "You Made Me Love You" by Louis Armstrong's Hot Five is not the venerable vaudeville number recorded by Al Jolson in 1913, but a punchy Armstrong original similar to the quaint syncopated love songs he had cooked up with Lil Hardin when they were still working for King Oliver.
1930 "The First Nighter" was first heard on radio. The First Nighter first appeared in 1930 on the Blue Network. It continued with some interruptions until 1953. An elaborate format and a deep American fascination for the theater were undoubtedly responsible for the success of this program. It created the illusion of transporting the listener to the "Little Theater on Times Square" to witness the opening night performance of a romantic comedy. The introduction took over two minutes. During this time, amid the street noise of Manhattan (car horns, police whistles, people talking), the audience met the "First Nighter." He was walking along Broadway in his tuxedo (couldn't get a cab during hectic wartime nights) to the theater and arriving just in time for the opening act curtain.
1934 Bank robber Baby Face Nelson dies in a shoot-out with the FBI.
1935 "Eeny Meeny Miney Mo" was recorded by Ginger Rogers and Johnny Mercer
Italian heavy cruiser Bolzano during the battle
1940 World War II: At the Battle of Cape Spartivento, the Royal Navy engages the Regia Marina in the Mediterranean Sea.
1940 In Romania, the ruling Iron Guard fascist party assassinates over 60 of arrested King Carol II of Romania's aides and other political dissidents, including former Prime Minister Nicolae Iorga.
1942 World War II: On this day in 1942, French Admiral Jean de Laborde sinks the French fleet anchored in Toulon harbor, off the southern coast of France, in order to keep it out of German hands.
In June 1940, after the German invasion of France and the establishment of an unoccupied zone in the southeast, led by Gen. Philippe Petain, Adm. Jean Darlan was committed to keeping the French fleet out of German control. At the same time, as a minister in the government that had signed an armistice with the Germans, one that promised a relative "autonomy" to Vichy France, Darlan was prohibited from sailing that fleet to British or neutral waters. But a German-commandeered fleet in southern France, so close to British-controlled regions in North Africa, could prove disastrous to the Brits, who decided to take matters into their own hands by launching Operation Catapult: the attempt by a British naval force to persuade the French naval commander at Oran to either break the armistice and sail the French fleet out of the Germans' grasp—or to scuttle it. And if the French wouldn't, the Brits would.
And the British tried. In a five-minute missile bombardment, they managed to sink one French cruiser and two old battleships. They also killed 1,250 French sailors. This would be the genesis of much bad blood between France and England throughout the war. General Petain broke off diplomatic relations with Great Britain.
But two years later, with the Germans now in Vichy and the armistice already violated, Admiral Laborde finished the job the British had started. As the Germans launched Operation Lila, the attempt to commandeer the French fleet, Laborde ordered the sinking of 2 battle cruisers, 4 heavy cruisers, 2 light cruisers, 1 aircraft transport, 30 destroyers, and 16 submarines. Three French subs managed to escape the Germans and make it to Algiers, Allied territory. Only one sub fell into German hands. The marine equivalent of a scorched-earth policy had succeeded.
1944 World War II: An explosion at a Royal Air Force ammunition dump at Fauld, Staffordshire kills seventy people.
1945 C.A.R.E. (Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere) was founded. CARE (originally Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe), was founded in 1945 by Wallace Campbell to provide relief to survivors of World War II. The relief came in "CARE Packages", which were U.S. Army surplus 10-in-1 food parcels left over from the planned U.S. invasion of Japan. The service let Americans send the packages to friends and families in Europe. Each CARE Package cost $10 and was guaranteed to reach its addressee within four months.
1947 Joe DiMaggio wins his 3rd MVP, beating Ted Williams by 1 vote. Setting off a storm of controversy, Joe DiMaggio is named American League MVP by a single point over Ted Williams. Williams, the Triple Crown winner, receives 201 points, and is completely left off one writer's ballot. A 10th-place vote would have given Williams the needed 2 points. Williams is selected The Sporting News Player of the Year.
A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division move through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir
1950 Korean War: Troops from the People's Republic of China launch a massive counterattack in North Korea against South Korean and United Nations forces (Battle of Chosin Reservoir), ending any hopes of a quick end to the conflict.
1951 First rocket to intercept an airplane, White Sands, NM. A Nike Ajax missile intercepted an aircraft flying at 15 miles range, 33,000 feet altitude, and 300 miles per hour, marking the first successful kill of an aerial target by a U.S. guided missile. Under the threat of Soviet developments, the Army rushed Nike Ajax into production and, between 1954 and 1958, deployed the missile system around key urban, military, and industrial locations, the world's first operational surface-to-air missile system.
1954 Alger Hiss is released from prison after serving 44 months for perjury.
1960 Gordie Howe becomes first NHLer to score 1,000 points. With an assist in a 2-0 win over Toronto, Gordie Howe becomes the first player to amass 1,000 career points. Amazingly, it would be more than eight years until another player (Jean Beliveau) reached this milestone. Even more amazingly, Howe's final NHL point was still more than 20 years in the future!
1961 Gordie Howe becomes first to play in 1,000 NHL games
1963 The first flight of a space vehicle powered by a liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen fuel combination was made by a Centaur II. It was one of a family of liquid fuelled upper stage vehicles designed to deliver a satellite to its operational orbit. The Centaur was originally designed to provide payload capacity for high altitude satellites, and lunar and planetary space probes. This Centaur was the upper stage on an Atlas rocket, AC-2, launched from the Atlantic Missile Range at Cape Canaveral, Florida. The Centaur's payload was a satellite, which it successfully put into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. (An earlier Centaur was on a failed suborbital launch attempt in mid-1962; the Atlas vehicle exploded due to insulation problems.)
1963 The Convention on the Unification of Certain Points of Substantive Law on Patents for Invention is signed at Strasbourg.
1964 Cold War: Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru appeals to the United States and the Soviet Union to end nuclear testing and to start nuclear disarmament, stating that such an action would "save humanity from the ultimate disaster".
1965 Vietnam War: The Pentagon tells U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that if planned operations are to succeed, the number of American troops in Vietnam has to be increased from 120,000 to 400,000.
1966 In highest-scoring NFL game, Washington Redskins defeat NY Giants 72-41
1967 Gold pool nations pledge support of $35 per ounce gold price
1967 The Association earned a gold record for the hit "Never My Love" "Never My Love" was written by the songwriting team of Don and Dick Addrisi. As The Addrisi Brothers, they went on to have hits with "We've Got To Get It On Again" and "Slow Dancin' Don't Turn Me On."
1968 Penny Ann Early became the first woman to play major professional basketball, for the Kentucky Colonels in an ABA game against the Los Angeles Stars.
1970 On a trip to the Philippines Pope Paul VI (1897–1978) was attacked by a dagger-wielding Bolivian painter disguised as a priest.
1971 "Theme From Shaft" by Isaac Hayes topped the charts. The "Theme From Shaft" was featured in the 1971 movie of the same name starring Richard Roundtree. It was remade in 2000 starring Samuel L. Jackson as Shaft. Hayes made an uncredited appearance in the remake. It won a Grammy for Best Instrumental Arrangement and an Oscar for Best Original Score. Hayes wrote this. He was the first African-American to win an Oscar in a composer category.
1971 The Anglican Church ordained its first women priests.
1973 Senate votes 92-3 to confirm Gerald R Ford as VP
1978 In San Francisco, California, city mayor George Moscone and openly gay city supervisor Harvey Milk are assassinated by former supervisor Dan White.
White, who stormed into San Francisco's government offices with a .38 revolver, had reportedly been angry about Moscone's decision not to reappoint him to the city board. Firing upon the mayor first, White then reloaded his pistol and turned his gun on his rival Milk, who was one of the nation's first openly gay politicians and a much-admired activist in San Francisco. Future California Senator and then-Supervisor Dianne Feinstein, who was the first to find Milk's body, found herself addressing a stunned crowd at City Hall. "As president of the Board of Supervisors, it's my duty to make this announcement: Both Mayor Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk have been shot and killed. The suspect is supervisor Dan White."
White, who was caught soon after the murders, pleaded a "diminished capacity" defense, claiming that copious amounts of junk food, combined with distress over the loss of his job, caused him to suffer mental problems. The so-called "Twinkie Defense" appeared to be successful, and, in 1979, White was found guilty of voluntary manslaughter rather than murder. Public outrage was so widespread that California revoked the diminished capacity defense in subsequent cases.
Following the murders, both riots and peaceful candlelight demonstrations took place as the city of San Francisco publicly mourned the loss of two of its most cherished and respected civic leaders. For his crime, White received a five-year prison sentence. After his release, he was unable to resume a normal life, and he took his own life in 1986,
1987 Wet weather prevailed across much of the nation east of the Rockies. Sunny and cool weather prevailed in the western U.S. Snow fell in the central U.S., with totals in Kansas ranging up to six inches at Burr Oak. Much of the area from central Oklahoma to southwestern Minnesota experienced its first snow of the winter season. (The National Weather Summary)
1988 Snow and high winds created blizzard conditions in Minnesota. Winds gusted to 63 mph at Windom, and snowfall totals ranged up to 14 inches at Aitkin. Snow drifts seven feet high closed many roads. Fargo ND reported a wind chill reading of 34 degrees below zero. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)
1989 Dr. Christoph Broelsch's team of doctors at the University of Chicago Hospitals implanted part of a woman's liver in her 21-month-old daughter in the world's first successful living donor liver transplant. Alyssa Smith from Schertz, Texas, received a portion of her mother Teri's liver. Dr. Broelsch performed the first liver transplant using a segment of a cadaver liver while at the University of Hannover in 1984. At the University of Chicago, he performed the first segmental transplant in the United States (1985), the first split-liver transplant (one donor, two recipients) in the U.S. (1988) and developed the technique for transplantation from a living donor.
1989 A storm system crossing the north central U.S. spread snow across the Dakotas and Minnesota. Heavy snow fell in western South Dakota, with 18 inches reported at Galena. Strong winds associated with the storm gusted to 50 mph in the Great Lakes Region and the Great Plains, with blowing dust reported in Kansas. Thunderstorms associated with the same storm system produced damaging winds in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana during the evening, with gusts to 73 mph reported east of Ypsilante MI. Unseasonably warm weather prevailed ahead of the cold front. Twenty-three cities from the Gulf coast to the Ohio Valley and the Mid Mississippi Valley reported record high temperatures for the date, including Saint Louis MO with a reading of 76 degrees. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)
1991 The United Nations Security Council adopts Security Council Resolution 721, leading the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.
2001 Sodium was detected in the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet by the Hubble Space Telescope. The planetary atmosphere of HD 209458b was the first outside our solar system to be measured. The planet, informally known as Osiris, was the first transiting planet discovered (5 Nov 1999). It orbits the sun-like star designated HD 209458. Later measurements with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (2003-4), found an enormous ellipsoidal envelope of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen around the planet with a temperature that reaches 10,000°C, resulting in a significant "tail" of atoms moving at speeds greater than the escape velocity.
2004 Pope John Paul II returns the relics of Saint John Chrysostom to the Eastern Orthodox Church.
2005 A major winter storm affected parts of Nebraska and the Dakotas during the 27th-28th. Snowfall accumulations of 16-20 inches were observed in parts of eastern South Dakota, while wind gusts exceeding 60 mph also accompanied the snow, creating blizzard conditions. Thousands of power outages were caused by the combination of strong winds and heavy snow. In South Dakota, about 8,000 utility poles and 10,000 miles of transmission line were brought down by the storm (Associated Press).
2006 The Canadian House of Commons approves a motion tabled by Prime Minister Stephen Harper recognizing the Québécois as a nation within Canada.
1542 Margaretha Blaurer, the first Protestant deaconess
1746 Robert Robert Livingston (d 1813) American lawyer, politician, diplomat from New York, and a Founding Father of the United States. He was often called "The Chancellor," after an early office he held.
1746 Increase Sumner (d 1799) American politician from Massachusetts. He served as the fifth governor of Massachusetts from 1797 to 1799.
1815 Johann Adam Ernst, in Oettingen, Germany, the “father of Missouri Synod Lutheranism in Canada,” (d 20 Jan 1895).
1827 Horace Wyman (d 1915) American inventor with 260 patents related to looms and textile machinery. One of Wyman's first patents, issued to him on Oct. 29, 1867, was for a loom. In the next few years, this was followed by a loom-box operating mechanism, a pile-fabric loom, and an improved shedding mechanism. In 1879, he was issued a patent for the first American "dobby" loom. One of his last but very important inventions was the weft replenishing loom having drop shuttle boxes (patented 8 Jan 1901). Textile mills throughout the world are still using machines of which the basic invention was Wyman's, and at the time of his death he was regarded as having done more for the loom industry than any other single individual.
1843 Cornelius Vanderbilt II (d 1899) American socialite, heir, businessman, and a member of the prominent United States Vanderbilt family. He was the favorite grandson of Cornelius Vanderbilt, who left him $5 million, and the eldest son of William Henry Vanderbilt, who left him close to $70 million. In his turn he succeeded them as head of the New York Central and related railroad lines in 1885.
1848 Henry Augustus Rowland (d 1901) American physicist who invented the concave diffraction grating, which replaced prisms and plane gratings in many applications, and revolutionized spectrum analysis--the resolution of a beam of light into components that differ in wavelength. His first major research was an investigation of the magnetic permeability of iron, steel and nickel, work which won the praise of Maxwell. Another experiment was the first to conclusively demonstrate that the motion of charged bodies produced magnetic effects. In the late 1870s, he established an authoritative figure for the absolute value of the ohm, and redetermined the mechanical equivalent of heat in the early 1880s, demonstrating that the specific heat of water varied with temperature.
1862 Adelaide Addison Pollard, in Bloomfield, Iowa. Her dislike for her given name, Sarah, led her to adopt the now familiar Adelaide. Raised in a Presbyterian home, she taught in several girls' schools in Chicago during the 1880s and later at Nyack Missionary Training School in New York. Even though she embraced the teachings of Divine Healing, she was plagued with frail health all her life. We remember her for the hymn "Have Thine Own Way, Lord." (d 1934)
1874 Charles Austin Beard (d 1948) Frederick Jackson Turner, one of the most influential American historians of the first half of the 20th century. He published hundreds of monographs, textbooks and interpretive studies in both history and political science. His works included radical re-evaluation of the founding fathers of the United States, who he believed were motivated more by economics than by philosophical principles. Beard's most influential book, written with his wife Mary Beard, was the wide-ranging and bestselling The Rise of American Civilization (1927), which had a major influence on American historians.
1874 Chaim Weizmann, in Motol, Russia, Zionist leader, (d. 9 Nov 1952).
1875 Elsie (Worthington) Clews Parsons (d 1941) U.S. ethnologist and anthropologist who was an expert on the customs of Indian tribes of the southwestern United States, especially the Hopi and Pueblo. Despite being raised in a socially prominent family, she asserted he independence and became an outspoken feminist. Influenced by meeting anthropologist Franz Boas during a visit to the southwest U.S. (1915), she became interested in work among native Americans of that region. Thus began 25-years of diligent study of native American life. In 1939 she published Pueblo Indian Religion in two volumes. Boas complimented this massive collection as "a summary of practically all we know about Pueblo religion and an indispensable source book for every student of Indian life."
1897 Vito "Don Vito" Genovese (d 1969) Italian mafioso who rose to power in America during the Castellammarese War to later become leader of the Genovese crime family. Genovese served as mentor to many future mob bosses including Vincent "The Chin" Gigante, Michael "Mike the Pipe" Genovese, and Carlo "Don Carlo" Gambino. He is also a relative of Thomas Genovese.
1903 Lars Onsager (d 1976) Norwegian-born American chemist whose development of a general theory of irreversible chemical processes gained him the 1968 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. These Onsager reciprocal relations have importance in a wide range of applications. Throughout his career, he studied the thermodynamics and kinetics of electrolytes. In 1944 he derived the exact solution of the two-dimensional Ising model, a model of a ferromagnet. This virtuosic mathematical feat led to a deeper understanding of phase transitions and critical points. From about 1940 Onsager investigated low-temperature physics. He suggested the quantization of vortices in liquid helium, and in 1952 extracted information about the distribution of electrons from the de Haas-van Alphen effect.
1906 Victor B. Scheffer American zoologist, marine mammalogist and conservation writer who was a world authority on the biology and conservation of marine mammals. He worked as a biologist for the U.S. 1937-69 conducting long-term studies on fur seals. He discovered, among other things, that the underfur layer of a seal's coat contains nearly three hundred thousand silky fibers per square inch, and that each year a new dentinal ridge forms on the root of each of its teeth. He began his career sharing the prevailing notion that wildlife was a "resource" to be manipulated, but by the time he retired from government service and turned to a career as a science writer, he had adopted an appreciation of our "dependence upon, and responsibility for, natural ecosystems."
1908 William White Howells (d 2005) U.S. physical anthropologist who specialized in the establishment of population relationships through physical measurement. During World War II, Howells served in the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence. Howells pioneered the use of quantitative methods in the formulation and solution of morphological problems, particularly his use of cranial measurements in world population studies. His authoritative book, Cranial Variation in Man, compared skull measurements from 17 distinct world populations. He is also known for his work in developing anthropological curricula and his popular books in the field, which have been widely translated and are extensively used in the classroom.
1909 James Rufus Agee (d 1955) American author, journalist, poet, screenwriter and film critic. In the 1940s, he was one of the most influential film critics in the U.S. His autobiographical novel, A Death in the Family (1957), won the author a posthumous Pulitzer Prize.
1911 David Merrick (d 2000) was a prolific Tony Award-winning American theatrical producer.
1914 Edward Griffith Begle (d 1978) American mathematician, a topologist, who led development of "new math." When the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite (1957), beating the U.S. into space, the effectiveness of science and mathematics education in American schools came under scrutiny. Begle's idea was to replace the traditional focus on mathematics as memorization and algorithmic computation. Instead, he designed a program to emphasise the fundamental importance of understanding the principles of mathematics. He directed (1958-72) the School Mathematics Study Group, funded by the National Science Foundation. SMSG produced teaching materials for all grade levels with this approach. Ultimately, initiating lasting reform through teachers was unsuccessful.
1916 Francis Dayle "Chick" Hearn (d 2002) American sportscaster. Known primarily as the long-time play-by-play announcer for the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association, the legendary Hearn is remembered for his rapid fire, staccato broadcasting style, inventing colorful phrases such as slam dunk, air ball, and no harm, no foul that have become common basketball vernacular, and for broadcasting 3,338 consecutive Lakers games starting on November 21, 1965. Additionally, Hearn started the now common tradition of estimating the distance of shots taken.
1917 Buffalo Bob Smith born Robert Emil Schmidt; (d 1998) host of the children's show Howdy Doody.
1921 Dora Dougherty American pilot and aviation psychologist who achieved two world records for women helicopter pilots, previously held by Russians. She flew a Bell 47G-3 helicopter to an altitude of 19,406 feet (8 Feb 1961) and a distance of 404.36 miles (10 Feb 1961). Dougherty also claimed a record in the new category of point-to-point speed by flying 91.6 mph. In WW II, she was a Women’s Airforce Service Pilot WASP from Jan 1943 to Dec 1944. As a human factors engineer with Bell Helicopter Company from 1958, she conducted research on pilot performance and cockpit design to determine ways in which cockpits and instruments could be better adapted to the pilots' needs. She also designed flight simulators.
1923 Ernest J. Wilkins, Jr. African-American physicist, mathematician, and engineer (chemical/nuclear). He entered the University of Chicago at age 13, and by age 19, in 1942, he became the seventh African American to obtain a Ph.D. in Mathematics. His career achievement has been to develop radiation shielding against gamma radiation, emitted during electron decay of the Sun and other nuclear sources. He developed mathematical models to calculate the amount of gamma radiation absorbed by a given material. This technique of calculating radiative absorption is widely used among researcher in space and nuclear science projects. His was also a joint owner of a company which designed and developed nuclear reactors for electrical power generation.
1935 Al Jackson, Jr. (d 1975) drummer, producer, and songwriter. He is best known as a founding member of Booker T. & the M.G.s, a group of session musicians who worked for Stax Records and produced their own instrumentals. Jackson was called "The Human Timekeeper" for his drumming ability.
1935 Les Blank American documentary filmmaker best known for his portraits of American traditional musicians. Most of his films focus on American traditional music forms including (among others) blues, Appalachian, Cajun, Creole, Tex-Mex, polka, tamburitza, and Hawaiian musics. Many of these films represent the only filmed documents of master musicians who are now deceased.
1941 Edward Thomas "Eddie" Rabbitt (d 1998) American country music singer-songwriter who enjoyed much pop success at the height of his career in the 1970s and 80s with twenty #1 country hits including "Drivin' My Life Away" and "I Love a Rainy Night," which also topped the Billboard Hot 100 and Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks.
1942 Henry Carr former American track and field athlete who won two gold medals at the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan.
1942 James Marshall "Jimi" Hendrix, born Johnny Allen Hendrix,(d 1970) American guitarist and singer-songwriter. He is widely considered the greatest electric guitarist in the history of rock music, and one of the most influential musicians of his era across a range of genres.
1952 James Donald "Wxb" Wetherbee American Naval officer and a former NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of six Space Shuttle missions and is the only American to have commanded five spaceflight missions.
1955 William Sanford "Bill" Nye popularly known as "Bill Nye the Science Guy", is an American science educator, comedian, television host and mechanical engineer. He is best known as the host of the Disney children's science show Bill Nye the Science Guy (1993–1997) and for his many subsequent appearances in popular media as a science educator.
1957 Caroline Bouvier Kennedy Schlossberg American author, attorney and would-be senator. She is a member of the influential Kennedy family and the only surviving child of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy.
1960 Tim Pawlenty, American politician, 39th Governor of Minnesota
1901 Clement Studebaker (b 1831) American manufacturer who founded a family firm that became the world's largest producer of horse-drawn vehicles and a leader in automobile manufacturing. In 1852 Henry and Clement Studebaker opened a blacksmith shop in South Bend, Indiana. By the Civil War the shop as supplying wagons to the U.S. Army. In 1868 four of the brothers established the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company. Despite setbacks, the company grew to be the largest wagon factory in the world, delivering on its motto, "Always give more than you promise." As the 20th Century dawned, after Clement Studebaker's death, the company began building both electric and gasoline powered automobiles.
1932 Christian James Broders, in Saint Louis, Spanish-American war chaplain and Brazil missionary, (b 22 Nov 1867, New Orleans).
1934 Lester Joseph Gillis (b 1908), known under the pseudonym George Nelson, was a bank robber and murderer in the 1930s. Gillis was known as Baby Face Nelson, a moniker given to him due to his youthful appearance and small stature. Usually referred to by criminal associates as "Jimmy", Nelson partnered with John Dillinger, helping him escape from prison in the famed "wooden pistol" escape, and was later labeled along with the remaining gang members as public enemy number one. Nelson is responsible for the murder of several people, and has the dubious distinction of having killed more FBI agents in the line of duty than any other single American citizen. Nelson has been the subject of several films. Nelson was shot by FBI agents and died after a shootout often termed "The Battle of Barrington".
1943 Frank Eugene Lutz (b 1879) American entomologist, museum curator, educator, conservationist, and writer who was probably the leading U.S. entomologist of the first half of the twentieth century. He who taught that insects were an integral part of the environment. As a boy, his fascination as a boy watching a caterpillar shedding its skin developed into a lifelong interest in insects. In 1909, he joined the American Museum of Natural History and became (1921) the first curator of the newly created Department of Entomology, where he remained for the rest of life. He created popular museum exhibits, including the first insect dioramas and "insect zoos" featuring live specimens. In the 1920s, established the country's first guided nature trail in Harriman State Park, New York.
1953 Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (b 1888) American playwright, and Nobel laureate in Literature. His plays are among the first to introduce into American drama the techniques of realism, associated with Russian playwright Anton Chekhov, Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen, and Swedish playwright August Strindberg. His plays were among the first to include speeches in American vernacular and involve characters on the fringes of society, engaging in depraved behavior, where they struggle to maintain their hopes and aspirations, but ultimately slide into disillusionment and despair. O'Neill wrote only one well-known comedy (Ah, Wilderness!) Nearly all of his other plays involve some degree of tragedy and personal pessimism.
1978 Harvey Milk, American politician (assassinated) (b. 1930)
1978 George Moscone, Mayor of San Francisco (assassinated) (b. 1929)
1980 Francis Burrall Hoffman (b 1882) American born architect best known for his work with James Deering’s Villa Vizcaya in Miami, Florida.
1988 John Carradine (b 1906) American actor, best known for his roles in horror films and Westerns as well as Shakespearean theater. He was one of the most prolific character actors in Hollywood history and the patriarch of an acting dynasty that includes four of his sons and four of his grandchildren.
Christian Feast Day
Barlaam and Josaphat
Congar of Congresbury
Facundus and Primitivus
Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal (Roman Catholic)
Vergilius of Salzburg
November 27 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Great-Martyr James Intercisus of Persia (421)
St. Palladius of Thessalonica was the first Bishop of the Christians of Ireland, preceding Saint Patrick.
St. Romanus the Wonderworker of Cilicia (5th century)
St. James, bishop and wonderworker of Rostov (1392)
St. Diodorus, abbot of Yuriev Monastery (Solovki) (1633)
Commemoration of the miracle of the Weeping Icon of the Most Holy Theotokos "Of the Sign" at Novgorod in 1170
Earliest date on which Advent Sunday can fall, while December 3 is the latest; celebrated on the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day. (Western Christianity)