United States History: November 4 Nov 4, 2012 23:13:36 GMT -5
Post by Evon on Nov 4, 2012 23:13:36 GMT -5
November 04 is the 308th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar.
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1520 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1500–1558) promised Martin Luther a hearing.
1646 The Massachusetts Bay Colony passed a law making it a capital offense to deny that the Bible was the Word of God. Any person convicted of the offense was liable to the death penalty.
Lithograph of Little Turtle, (leader of of the Miamis, Blue Jacket of the Shawnees and Buckongahelas of the Delawares (Lenape)) reputedly based upon a lost portrait by Gilbert Stuart, destroyed when the British burned Washington, D.C. in 1814
1791 The Western Confederacy of American Indians wins a major victory over the United States in the Battle of the Wabash.
Erie Canal map c. 1840
1825 The Erie Canal is completed with Governor DeWitt Clinton performing the Wedding of The Waters ceremony in New York Harbour.
1842 Abraham Lincoln marries Mary Todd in Springfield, IL. Mary Todd moved from Lexington, Kentucky, to Springfield, Illinois, in the fall of 1839. Not quite 21 years of age, Mary moved into the home of her older sister, Mrs. Ninian Edwards. On the morning of Thursday, November 3, 1842, Abraham dropped by Reverend Dresser's home. The Dresser family was still at breakfast when Abraham announced, "I want to get hitched tonight." Reverend Dresser agreed to the arrangement.
1845 Michael Faraday, working in his laboratory at the Royal Institution, hung a piece of heavy glass between the poles of an electro-magnet and observed that the glass aligned itself across the lines of force of the magnet. He further experimented on many other substances, with similar results, a phenomena that he named diamagnetism. These investigations showed Faraday that magnetism was inherent within matter. This led to his lecture "Thoughts on Ray-vibrations" in April 1846, which he expanded in the following years into his field theory of electro-magnetism. This was the progenitor for mathematical descriptions formed by Thomson, and especially for the seminal work of James Clerk Maxwell.
1846 The first U.S. patent for an artificial leg was granted to Benjamin F. Palmer of Meredith, New Hampshire (No. 4,834). The leg had a pliable joint that worked noiselessly and preserved its contour in all positions. It presented no openings in the exterior of the legs about the joints and contained tendons of gut and springs arranged in such a manner as to give more elasticity, stength, durability and freedom of motion than previously available. Artificial legs had been used previously: in 1837 one was exhibited by Howland & Co of Brookfield, Mass., at the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association.
1861 The University of Washington opens in Seattle, Washington as the Territorial University.
1862 Richard Gatling patented his first rapid-fire machine gun. The 1862 version of the Gatling gun had reloadable steel chambers and used percussion caps. It was prone to occasional jamming. The Gatling gun saw only limited use in the American Civil War, but the conflict tested this weapon, perhaps the first successful machine gun used in warfare. Gatling used the six barrels to partially cool the gun during firing. Since the gun was capable of firing 600 rounds a minute, each barrel fired 100 rounds per minute.
1864 Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest subjects a Union supply base at Johnsonville, Tennessee, to a devastating artillery barrage that destroys millions of dollars in materiel.
This action was part of a continuing effort by the Confederates to disrupt the Federal lines that supplied General William T. Sherman's army in Georgia. In the summer of 1864, Sherman captured Atlanta, and by November he was planning his march across Georgia. Meanwhile, the defeated Confederates hoped that destroying his line would draw Sherman out of the Deep South. Nobody was better at raiding than Forrest, but Union pursuit had kept him in Mississippi during the Atlanta campaign.
In the fall, Forrest mounted an ambitious raid on Union supply routes in western Tennessee and Kentucky. Johnsonville was an important transfer point from boats on the Tennessee River to a rail line that connected with Nashville to the east. When Sherman sent part of his army back to Nashville to protect his supply lines, Forrest hoped to apply pressure to that force. Forrest began moving part of his force to Johnsonville on October 16, but most of his men were not in place until early November. Incredibly, the Union forces, which numbered about 2,000, seem to have been completely unaware of the Confederates just across the river. Forrest brought up artillery and began a barrage at 2 p.m. on November 5. The attack was devastating. One observer noted, "The wharf for nearly one mile up and down the river presented one solid sheet of flame." More than $6 million worth of supplies were destroyed, along with four gunboats, 14 transports, and 20 barges. General George Thomas, commander of the Union force at Nashville, had to divert troops to protect Johnsonville.
After the raid, Forrest's reputation grew, but the raid did not deter Sherman from embarking on the March to the Sea, his devastating expedition across Georgia.
1869 The first issue was published of the journal Nature, editted by astronomer Sir Norman Lockyer. The first issue included articles on astronomy, plants, moths, science teaching in schools, an obituary for Thomas Graham, paleontology and meeting notices. Nature remains one of the most popular and well respected science journals in the world, printing research articles from across a wide range of scientific fields.
1873 The first U.S. patent was issued for a meat-slicing machine to Anthony Iske of Lancaster, Pennsylvania (No. 144,206). It used an oblique knife in a vertical sliding frame for slicing dried beef.
1873 The first U.S. patent for a gold crown was issued: to Dr. John B. Beers of San Francisco, California on "artificial crowns for teeth" (No. 144,182). His technique was to prepare a hollow metal crown which would be slipped over the projecting portion of the old tooth and secured to it so that it would continue to function for chewing as before, while also preventing further decay. A gold screw was mounted in the old tooth, the hollow crown slipped over it and cemented with oxychloride of zinc. This replaced the old method of restoring decayed or broken teeth by condensing gold upon it with a hammer until it had taken the desired shape - which difficult process was costly, tedious, and frequently resulted in inflammation from the hammering on the jaw.
1879 James Jacob Ritty (1837-1918) with help from his brother John invented the first cash register, intended to combat stealing by bartenders in the Pony House Restaurant, his Dayton, Ohio saloon. His idea came on a cruise, when he saw a device that counted the revolutions of the ship's propeller. Their first model looked like a clock, but instead of the hands indicating hours and minutes, they indicated dollars and cents. Behind the dial two adding discs accumulated the total of the amounts recorded. Known as "the incorruptible cashier," with no cash drawer, it would show anyone within sight how much had been recorded. However, the Ritty brothers failed to sell their cash registers in large quantities - largely because shop staff distrusted this "thief trap".
1879 African-American Thomas Elkins patented a refrigerating apparatus (No. 221,222) designed for chilling or cooling food, or even, according to the patent, human corpses. A porous chilling box enveloped in fabric rests on a grated floor through which a circulation of air aids the evaporation of water supplied from a trough to the fabric. As the water evaporates, latent heat is withdrawn from the chilling box. He also held patents for a table (a dining and ironing table combined with a quilting frame, 20 Feb 1870, No. 100,020) and a commode (9 Jan 1872, No. 122,518).
1898 The first church to bear the Pentecostal Holiness name was organized at Goldsboro, NC, under the leadership of Methodist evangelist Ambrose Blackman Crumpler, 35.
1918 World War I: Austria-Hungary surrenders to Italy.
Adolf Hitler and Ernst Röhm inspecting the SA in Nuremberg in 1933.
1921 The Sturmabteilung or SA is formed by Adolf Hitler
1922 The entrance to King Tutankhamen's tomb was discovered in Egypt in the Valley of the Kings where the English archaeologist Howard Carter had been making extended excavations. One of Carter's labourers stumbled upon a stone step, the first step in a sunken stairway that ran down into the rock. Later in the month, Carter opened the virtually intact tomb of the largely unknown child-king Tutankhamen, who became pharaoh at age 9 and died at 19. Carter's association with Egyptology began in 1891, as a commercial artist hired by Egyptologist Percy Newberry to finish a series of drawings of reliefs. In 1907, Lord Carnarvon, a wealthy English aristocrat with a passion for archaeology, hired Carter and financed their various excavations.
1924 Nellie Tayloe Ross elected first US female governor . Because Governor Ross's death occurred close to the upcoming general election on November 4, 1924, Wyoming law required that his successor be elected then. Democratic Party leaders in Wyoming offered Nellie Tayloe Ross the nomination to fill the remainder of her husband's term. She did not reply and the party took her silence for acquiescence, nominating her on October 14.
1927 - A great Vermont flood occurred. Tropical rains deluged the Green Mountain area of Vermont causing the worst flood in the history of the state. Torrential rains, up to 15 inches in the higher elevations, sent streams on a rampage devastating the Winooski Valley. Flooding claimed 200 lives and caused 40 million dollars damage. The town of Vernon reported 84 deaths. Flooding left up to eight to ten feet of water in downtown Montpelier VT. (2nd-4th) (David Ludlum) (The Weather Channel)
1936 Future U.S. Senate Chaplain Rev. Peter Marshall, 34, married Catherine Wood, 22. Following Peter's premature death at age 46, Catherine immortalized his name through her 1951 bestÂselling biography, "A Man Called Peter."
1939 The first air-conditioned automobile was exhibited by its manufacturer, Packard Motor Co. of Detroit Michigan. The public exhibition at the 40th Automobile Show in Chicago, Illinois ran between 4-12 Nov. Air in the car was cooled, dehumidified, filtered and circulated. Heat was provided for use in the winter. The refrigerating coils were located behind the rear seat in an air duct, with heating coils in another compartment of the same duct. The capacity of the unit was equivalent to 1.5 tons of ice in 24 hours when the car was driven at 60 mph*. Cadillac followed in 1941. The huge evaporator left little room for luggage in the trunk, and the only way to shut it off was to stop, raise the hood, and remove the compressor belt. Cadillac followed in 1941.
1939 US allows "cash & carry" arms sales during WW II The Neutrality Act of 1935 was followed by the adoption of similar measures in 1936, 1937, and 1939. The 1939 act, passed at a time of growing tension in Europe, banned U.S. ships from carrying goods or passengers to belligerent ports, but allowed the United States to sell arms to friendly powers on a cash-and-carry basis.
1943 Yhe X-10 nuclear reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory went "critical" with a self-sustaining fission reaction - the world's second reactor to achieve one. The reactor took just nine urgent months to build. Over the next year, the reactor performed flawlessly, irradiating thousands of fuel slugs, which were disassembled and dissolved so the plutonium could be extracted, bit by precious bit. It was an experimental reactor far larger and more advanced than Fermi's Chicago pile: a graphite cube 24 feet on each side, with seven-foot-thick concrete walls for radiation shielding. By the end of 1944, the reactor's most urgent mission had been completed and its focus shifted to radioisotope production for medicine and research.
1946 The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Constitution became effective. The UNESCO charter was signed by 37 states in London on 16 Nov 1945. The Preamble of its Constitution declares: "Since wars begin in the minds of men it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed." It currently has 188 Member States and 5 Associate Members. Its main objective is to contribute to peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science, culture and communication. UNESCO provides for the advancement, transfer, and sharing of knowledge: relying primarily on research, training and teaching activities. It has headquarters in Paris, France.
1949 "One Man's Family" premieres on TV "One Man's Family" began as a radio serial in 1932. It ran until 1959, making it the longest running serial in radio history. By 1949, when television expressed interest, the show focused on the Barbour children. Oldest daughter Hazel had twins, Claudia was rebellious and involved in romances, Claudia's twin brother Cliff had been married three times, and Jack was a 36-year old father of six daughters, including triplets.
1951 NY Giants & NY Yanks score back-to-back TDs on kickoff returns
1952 The United States government establishes the National Security Agency.
1956 Soviets crush Hungarian revolt Following nearly two weeks of protest and political instability in Hungary, Soviet tanks and troops viciously crush the protests. Thousands were killed and wounded, and nearly a quarter-million Hungarians fled the country.
The problems in Hungary had begun in October, when thousands of protesters took to the streets demanding a more democratic political system and freedom from Soviet oppression. In response, Communist Party officials appointed Imre Nagy, (a former premier who had been dismissed from the party for his criticisms of Stalinist policies), as the new premier. Nagy tried to restore peace and asked the Soviets to withdraw their troops. The Soviets did so, but Nagy then tried to push the Hungarian revolt forward by abolishing one-party rule. He also announced that Hungary was withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact (the Soviet bloc's equivalent of NATO).
On November 4, Soviet tanks rolled into Budapest to stop Hungary's movement away from the communist bloc. Vicious street fighting broke out, but the Soviets' greater power insured the doom of the rebels. After the deaths and injuries of thousands of Hungarians, the protests were finally put down. Nagy was captured shortly thereafter and was executed two years later.
The Soviet action stunned many people in the West. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had pledged a retreat from the Stalinist policies and repression of the past, but the violent actions in Budapest suggested otherwise. Inaction on the part of the United States angered and frustrated many Hungarians. Voice of America radio broadcasts and speeches by President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles had recently suggested that the United States supported the "liberation" of "captive peoples" in communist nations. Yet, as Soviet tanks bore down on the protesters, the United States did nothing beyond issuing public statements of sympathy for their plight.
1959 Ernie Banks, Cubs shortstop, wins NL MVP. "Mr. Cub" Ernie Banks wins his 2nd MVP award in a row on the strength of his 45 home runs and 143 RBI. Eddie Mathews finishes 2nd.
1961 "Runaround Sue" by Dion topped the charts
1962 In a test of the Nike-Hercules air defense missile, Shot Dominic-Tightrope is successfully detonated 69,000 feet above Johnston Island. It would also be the last atmospheric nuclear test conducted by the United States.
1962 Bob Dylan gave his first major concert outside of Greenwich Village. After initially playing mostly in small "basket" clubs for little pay, Dylan gained some public recognition after a positive review in The New York Times by critic Robert Shelton. Shelton's review and word-of-mouth around Greenwich Village led to legendary music business figure John Hammond's signing Dylan to Columbia Records that October. In August 1962, Robert Allen Zimmerman went to the Supreme Court building in New York and changed his name to Robert Dylan.
1965 Lee Breedlove sets female land speed record (308.56 MPH). Lee Ann Roberts Breedlove, wife of land speed record-holder Craig Breedlove, became the first female driver to exceed 300mph when she sped to 308.50mph in the Spirit of America - Sonic 1 vehicle over the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah. The Sonic 1 was a four-wheel vehicle powered by a J79 jet engine. A few hours after Lee Ann jet-powered across the one-mile course, Craig Breedlove shattered his own record from the previous year when he reached 555.49mph in the Spirit of America.
1970 Vietnam War: Vietnamization -- The United States turns control of the Binh Thuy Air Base in the Mekong Delta over to South Vietnam.
1970 Genie, a 13-year-old feral child is found in Los Angeles, California having been locked in her bedroom for most of her life.
1972 "I Can See Clearly Now" by Johnny Nash topped the charts
1973 Golfing great Ben Crenshaw won his first tournament on the pro tour by capturing the Texas Open
1978 "You Needed Me" by Anne Murray topped the charts.
1979 On this day in 1979, hundreds of Iranian students storm the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, taking more than 60 American hostages. The students, supporters of the conservative Muslim cleric Ayatollah Khomeini, were demanding the return of Iran's deposed leader, the Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi, who had fled to Egypt in January 1979 and by November was receiving cancer treatment in the United States. After the student takeover, President Jimmy Carter ordered a complete embargo of Iranian oil.
This embargo only exacerbated an energy crisis that had been going on since the beginning of 1979. An Iranian oil-field strike and the January revolution had disrupted oil supplies from that part of the Middle East, and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel had announced a per-barrel fee increase that sent prices inching toward an all-time high. By the time the students took over the Embassy in November, Americans were already dealing with the effects of this crisis: long lines and short tempers at gas pumps, panics over gasoline and heating oil shortages, and frustration with the inefficient, gas-guzzling vehicles manufactured by American automakers.
This "oil shock" reminded many Americans of the oil crisis of 1973-1974, when an Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) embargo sent gasoline prices through the roof: By the time that embargo ended, the average retail price of gas had climbed to 84 cents per gallon from 38 cents per gallon. As a result, the big, heavy cars that American automakers were famous for became incredibly expensive to operate—many got fewer than 10 miles to every gallon of gas!—and many people traded their gas-guzzling muscle cars and gigantic luxury sedans for more fuel-efficient compact cars. This episode had not ended well for American carmakers, who had rushed some smaller cars to market without thoroughly checking them for problems and quirks, which in turn contributed to their growing reputation for unreliability and poor craftsmanship. Once the immediate crisis had subsided, most of those domestic compacts were left to languish on dealers' lots.
1979's hostage crisis compounded the energy crisis—and, in fact, many historians believe that the combination of the two events cost President Carter his job—but there were a few winners. Japanese carmakers, for instance, gained a reputation for building inexpensive, reliable, efficient cars that were particularly well-suited to the new era of austerity. Datsun, Subaru, Toyota and Honda--whose Accord sedan was one of the most successful cars of 1979--all used the energy crisis to gain a permanent foothold in the American marketplace.
In April 1980, President Carter severed all diplomatic relations with the Iranian government, but after a top-secret rescue mission failed, he resumed negotiations with the Khomeini regime. Despite his best efforts to win the hostages' freedom while he was still in office, Carter did not get much credit for their release: The Iranians let the hostages go on January 20, 1981, just minutes after new elected President Ronald Reagan finished his inaugural address.
1980 Ronald Reagan (R) beats President Jimmy Carter (R) by a landslide. This contest was between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan. Carter was blamed for soaring inflation, high interest rates, and stagnant economy at home, and a deteriorating situation abroad, especially in the Middle East where the Iran hostage crisis proved humiliating. Reagan, the charismatic ex-Governor of California, repeatedly ridiculed Carter's ineffectiveness and won a landslide victory that carried the United States Senate for the first time in 28 years.
1980 Sadaharu Oh of the Tokyo Yomiuri Giants retired from professional baseball. The first baseman hit a record 868 home runs in his 22-year playing career. On the dominating Yomiuri Giants, Oh batted third and Shigeo Nagashima hit clean-up as Japan's equivalent of Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig. Oh won triple crowns in 1974 and 1975 and broke Hank Aaron's career HR mark in 1978.
1985 - A super wet Gulf storm dumped upwards of fifteen inches of rain in the mountains of Virginia and West Virginia causing devastating damage and claiming forty lives. (Sandra and TI Richard Sanders - 1987)
1987 - Thirty-two cities in the eastern and south central U.S. reported record high temperatures for the date. Highs of 74 degrees at Portland ME and 86 degrees at Fort Smith AR equalled November records. It was the fourth day of record warmth for Beckley WV, Memphis TN and Paducah KY. A cold front ushered much colder air into the north central U.S. Gale force winds lashed all five Great Lakes. (The National Weather Summary)
1987 NBA announces 4 new franchises; Charlotte & Miami for 1988 & Minneapolis & Orlando for 1989
1988 - Thunderstorms developing ahead of a fast moving cold front produced severe weather over the Tennessee Valley and the Central Gulf Coast States during the afternoon and evening hours, and into the next morning. Thunderstorms spawned nineteen tornadoes, including eleven in Mississippi. The last of the nineteen tornadoes killed a woman in her mobile home in Lee FL. A tornado in Culbert AL injured sixteen people, and caused two million dollars damage. Thunderstorms also produced baseball size hail in Alabama. Unseasonably hot air prevailed south of the cold front. McAllen TX was the hot spot in the nation with a high of 102 degrees. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)
1989 "Listen To Your Heart" by Roxette topped the charts
1989 Orlando Magic's first NBA game, loses to Nets, 111-106
1989 Snow and high winds plagued parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Winds gusted to 71 mph near Wheatland WY, and reached 80 mph west of Fort Collins CO. Up to five inches of snow blanketed Yellowstone Park WY closing many roads. Snow also blanketed northern Minnesota, with seven inches reported at Baudette. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)
1990 Iraq says it is preparing for a "dangerous war"
1994 San Francisco: First conference that focuses exclusively on the subject of the commercial potential of the World Wide Web.
1995 Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin is fatally shot after attending a peace rally held in Tel Aviv's Kings Square in Israel. Rabin later died in surgery at Ichilov Hospital in Tel Aviv.
The 73-year-old prime minister was walking to his car when he was shot in the arm and the back by Yigal Amir, a 27-year-old Jewish law student who had connections to the far-right Jewish group Eyal. Israeli police arrested Amir at the scene of the shooting, and he later confessed to the assassination, explaining at his arraignment that he killed Rabin because the prime minister wanted "to give our country to the Arabs."
Born in Jerusalem, Rabin was a leader of the Arab-Israeli war of 1948 and served as chief-of-staff of Israel's armed forces during the Six-Day War of 1967. After serving as Israel's ambassador to the United States, Rabin entered the Labour Party and became prime minister in 1974. As prime minister, he conducted the negotiations that resulted in a 1974 cease-fire with Syria and the 1975 military disengagement agreement between Israel and Egypt. In 1977, Rabin resigned as prime minister over a scandal involving his holding of bank accounts in the United States in violation of Israeli law. From 1984 to 1990, he served as his country's defense minister.
In 1992, Rabin led the Labour Party to election victory and became Israel's prime minister again. In 1993, he signed the historic Israeli-Palestinian Declaration of Principles with Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat and in 1994 concluded a formal peace agreement with the Palestinians. In October 1994, Rabin and Arafat shared the Nobel Peace Prize, along with Israeli foreign minister Shimon Peres. One year later, Rabin was assassinated. Peres succeeded him as prime minister.
2001 Arizona Diamondbacks beat the NY Yankees 3-2 in game 7 of the World Series
2007 Daylight Saving Time in the U.S. ended at 2 am, the duration of DST during the year having been extended by Congress under The Energy Policy Act of 2005 to run from the second Sunday in March 2007. Since 1986, U.S. DST had applied from 2 a.m. on the first Sunday in April to the last Sunday of October (with some differences under state laws). Effective in 2007, DST was set to begin on the second Sunday of March and end the first Sunday of November. In the European Union, Summer Time began as before with all time zones changing at 1:00 am Universal Time (Greenwich Mean Time) on the last Sunday in March and ended at the same time on the last Sunday in October.
2008 Barack Obama becomes the first African-American to be elected President of the United States.
2008 Proposition 8 passes in California, revoking state recognition of LGBT marriages.
1740 Augustus Montague Toplady, English author of hymn "Rock of Ages" (d. 1778)
1803 Sarah Hall Boardman, in Alstead, New Hampshire (d. 3 Sep 1845). She spent 20 years of her life in Burma (now known as Myanmar) doing missionary work. She and her husband George Boardman sailed to Burma in 1824, just one week after their wedding. She was widowed in 1831. Although a widowed missionary wife in this era would normally return to her homeland, from 1831 to 1834 she preached to the Karen in the jungles and supervised mission schools. In 1834 she married Adoniram Judson. Her Burmese translation of The Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan is still in use today. She also translated the New Testament into Peguan. in 1844 she gave birth to Edward Judson, who later pastored a church in New York City named after his father. Her illness forced the family to return to the United States in 1844, but she died en route at Saint Helena. While in the states, Judson asked Emily Chubbuck to write Boardman's biography, and he subsequently married Chubbuck.
1809 Benjamin Robbins Curtis, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1874)
1816 Stephen Johnson Field, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1899)
1836 Henry Jacob Lutcher (d 1912) sawmiller and business partner of the Lutcher and Moore Lumber Company. His business ventures would help establish Orange, Texas as the timber-processing capital of the South in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
1866 J. Lincoln Hall, American sacred music composer, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 29 November 1930, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).
1879 Will Rogers, cowboy philosopher and humorist, one of the most beloved entertainers of the early 20th century, is born on a ranch in Cherokee Indian territory.
The son of a respected mixed-blood Cherokee couple, William Penn Adair Rogers grew up riding and roping on the plains of Oklahoma. An indifferent student, he earned only average grades in school, but he was by no means the ill-educated common man that he later liked to pretend. He was, in fact, highly literate and well read. In 1898, he left his family ranch to work as a Texas cowboy, and then traveled to Argentina where he spent a few months as a gaucho. But Rogers discovered his real talent when he joined Texas Jack's Wild West show in 1902 as a trick roper and rider under the stage name "The Cherokee Kid." For all his skill with ropes and horses, Rogers soon realized that audiences most enjoyed his impromptu jokes and witty remarks. Eventually, Rogers began to focus on making humorous comments on world events and created a popular vaudeville act with which he traveled the country.
In 1919, Rogers' first book, The Peace Conference, was published. In the 1920s, he achieved national fame with a series of movie appearances, radio shows, lecture tours, magazine articles, and regular newspapers columns. Amazingly prolific, Rogers eventually wrote seven books, an autobiography, almost 3,000 short commentaries called "daily telegrams," more than 1,000 newspaper articles, and 58 magazine articles. Rogers' warm, folksy manner and penetrating wit were hugely popular during the Depression, and his concern for the welfare of average folks was genuine. He contributed frequent charitable performances in support of the victims of floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes worldwide.
On August 15, 1935, Rogers was on a flight to Asia with the famous pilot Wiley Post when the craft developed engine troubles and crashed near Point Barrow, Alaska. The crash killed both men. Rogers was only 55.
1837 James Douglas (d 1918) Canadian-American metallurgist, mining engineer and philanthropist who developed the copper mining industry in the U.S. Southwest. He was co-inventor of the Hunt-Douglas process for copper extraction, which brought him to the attention of the Phelps-Dodge Corp. In 1881, he examined copper ore deposits in Arizona for the company which then from 1885 operated the Copper Queen Mine, at Bisbee, Arizona. Under Douglas, it became one of the top copper producing mines in the U.S. He grew wealthy, and became the president of Phelps-Dodge 1908-18. The company built the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad (from 1887) to transport its ore. He founded a huge smelting centre at the town of Douglas, Ariz., named for him.
1841 Benjamin Franklin Goodrich (d 1888) industrialist who founded the B.F. Goodrich Rubber Co. in Akron, Ohio. After the Civil War, during which he served as an Army surgeon, Goodrich with J.P. Morris acquired the Hudson River Rubber Co. for $5,000.00 under a license agreement with Charles Goodyear. This company, failed, as did their next in Melrose, NY. Goodrich moved to Akron and began a partnership , the Goodrich, Tew Company, on December 31, 1870 and began making such rubber products as fire hoses, industrial belts and bicycle tires on February 19, 1871. Following its reorganization, the B.F. Goodrich Company was incorporated in 1880.
1887 Alfred Lee Loomis (d 1975) American attorney, investment banker, physicist, philanthropist, and patron of scientific research. He established the Loomis Laboratory in Tuxedo Park, New York, and his role in the development of radar is considered instrumental in the Allied victory in World War II. He invented the Aberdeen Chronograph for measuring muzzle velocities, proposed the LORAN navigational system, contributed significantly (perhaps critically, according to Luis Alvarez) to the development of a ground-controlled approach technology for aircraft, and participated in preliminary meetings of the Manhattan Project. Loomis also made contributions to biological instrumentation—working with Edmund Newton Harvey, he co-invented the microscope centrifuge, and pioneered techniques for electroencephalography. In 1937 he discovered the sleep K-complex brainwave.
1903 Watchman Nee. (d 1972)Soon after his conversions, he joined the Brethren and began teaching in 1924. He made several trips to the United States and other countries, and it was on those trips that he authored many books. However, although he could have remained in freedom in the United States, Watchman Nee returned to China to share the sufferings of his people under Communism. Because his preaching conflicted with Communist ideology, he was sentenced to fifteen years in prison on a trumped up charge. When due for release, he refused to deny Christ and was given several more years. In the meantime, his faithful wife was also persecuted. Her house was ransacked thirteen times (but she hid her precious Bible and Christian literature in ingenious places). She died in 1971. Watchman Nee died in prison, still confessing Christ.
1906 Robert "Bob" Bernard Considine (d 1975) American writer and commentator. He is best-known for co-writing Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo and The Babe Ruth Story.
1906 Thomas Sterling North (d 1974) American author of books for children and adults, including 1963's bestselling Rascal. North, who professionally went by "Sterling North", was born on the second floor of a farmhouse on the shores of Lake Koshkonong, a few miles from Edgerton, Wisconsin, in 1906, and died in Morristown, New Jersey in 1974. Surviving a near-paralyzing struggle with polio in his teens, he grew to young adulthood in the quiet southern Wisconsin village of Edgerton, which North transformed into the "Brailsford Junction" setting of several of his books.
1908 Stanley Cortez, A.S.C. (born Stanislaus Krantz) (d 1997) American cinematographer, worked on over seventy films, including Orson Welles' The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), Charles Laughton's The Night of the Hunter (1955), Nunnally Johnson's The Three Faces of Eve (1957), and Samuel Fuller's Shock Corridor (1963) and The Naked Kiss (1964).
1909 Bert Patenaude, American soccer player (d. 1974)
1916 Walter Cronkite, American news broadcaster (d. 2009)
1916 Ruth Mosko Handler (d 2002) American inventor who created the Barbie Doll (1959), a teenage doll with a tiny waist and slender hips, and Ken, a boy doll (1961), which she named after her children. She co-founded the Mattel company in 1942. The business originally sold picture frames, and later dollhouse furniture which shortly led to specializing in toys. With a blonde ponytail and a zebra-striped swimsuit, the first "Barbie Teen-Age Fashion Model" sold over 350,000 the first year. The company soon made $100m annually. After being diagnosed with breast cancer in 1970, resulting in a mastectomy, she founded Ruthton Corporation to manufacture and market a prosthetic breast for women with a similar need.
1918 Art Carney, American actor (d. 2003)
1937 Loretta Swit Passaic NJ, actress (Hotlips Houlihan-M*A*S*H)
1946 Laura Bush, former First Lady of the United States
1953 Carlos Gutierrez, American politician and 35th United States Secretary of Commerce
1801 Patriot William Shippen, of the powerful Shippen family of Philadelphia dies at the age of 89 at his home in Germantown, Pennsylvania, on this day in 1801. He was a descendant of the well-known Edward Shippen, colonial Philadelphia’s mayor and Pennsylvania’s chief justice.
William Shippen pursued a medical education instead of following in the footsteps of his father, a successful merchant. He established a large practice in Philadelphia and spent the 1740s immersed in civic projects including the establishment of the First Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia and Benjamin Franklin’s Public Academy. The Academy evolved into the College of Philadelphia, now the University of Pennsylvania, of which Shippen served as a trustee from 1755 to 1779. William’s brother, Edward, was instrumental in the founding of the College of New Jersey, now Princeton University, of which William also served as a trustee.
Shippen went on to serve as a Pennsylvania delegate to the Continental Congress from 1779 to 1780, before returning to his medical practice. His son, William Shippen Jr., graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1754, received a medical degree from the University of Edinburgh in 1761 and, with his father’s support, became an early faculty member at the first medical school in what would later become the United States at the College of Philadelphia in 1765. William Jr. then put his medical expertise to a patriotic purpose, serving the Continental Army as the director of hospitals from 1777 to 1781. He married Patriot Thomas Lee of Virginia’s daughter, Alice. Their daughter, Nancy, further tightened the bonds between the leading families of the new United States by marrying Robert Beekman Livingston of New York.
By contrast, William Sr.’s niece—Edward’s daughter, Margaret (Peggy) Shippen—married Benedict Arnold in 1779, when she was 18 and the then Patriot war hero was 37. Arnold’s attempt to keep his young bride in the affluent lifestyle to which she was accustomed is generally understood to be one cause of his decision to accept a bribe from the British. Peggy had courted British Major John Andre before meeting Arnold and likely introduced her old beau to her husband; Arnold later conspired with Andre, agreeing to hand over West Point to the British for 20,000 pounds sterling. For her part, Peggy is thought to have passed information to the British before her marriage to Arnold, although she convinced George Washington of her innocence after Andre’s capture and her husband’s flight. She remained a devoted wife to Arnold despite their financial and personal hardships when they fled to England, where she remained after his death in June 1801.
1906 John Henry Ketcham () United States Representative from New York for over 33 years. He also served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
1924 Richard Conner, American Civil War Medal of Honor Recipient (b. 1843)
1924 Charles Carroll Luther (b. 17 May 1847), American Baptist evangelist and hymnist, died.
1926 Arnold "The Brain" Rothstein (b 1928) New York businessman and gambler who became a famous kingpin of organized crime, the Jewish mafia. Rothstein was also widely reputed to have been behind baseball's Black Sox Scandal, in which the 1919 World Series was fixed. His notoriety inspired several fictional characters based on his life, including "Meyer Wolfsheim" in F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby ; the character who shared his name in the Broadway Musical "Legs Diamond"; and "Nathan Detroit" in the Damon Runyon story The Idyll of Miss Sarah Brown, which was made into the renowned musical Guys and Dolls.
1944 On this day in 1944, British Gen. John Dill dies in Washington, D.C., and is buried in Arlington Cemetery, the only foreigner to be so honored.
Born on Christmas Day, 1881, in County Armagh, Ireland, Dill was a military man from his earliest years, serving in the South African War at age 18, then in World War I. He was promoted to the office of director of military operations and intelligence of the British War Office in 1934 and knighted for service to the empire in 1937.
When the Second World War broke out he was already serving as chief of the imperial general staff and renowned for his gifts as a strategist. It was his decision to reinforce the British position in Egypt with 150 tanks in August 1940, despite a shortage of such armaments back home. And in March 1941, he championed Britain's defense of Greece against the Axis invasion.
But such early strategic successes were followed up by more cautious decision-making, which disturbed Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who favored more aggressive maneuvers against the enemy. Consequently, Churchill removed Dill from his post and transferred him to the United States, to become chief British military representative to Washington. It was there that Dill developed a close personal friendship with George C. Marshall, the U.S. chief of staff, which resulted in a closer U.S.-British alliance.
Upon Dill's death, it was Marshall who intervened to have Dill buried at Arlington National Cemetery, normally reserved only for Americans who had served their nation during wartime. Dill's plot is also marked by only one of two equestrian statues in the cemetery.
1950 Grover Cleveland "Old Pete" Alexander (b 1887) American professional baseball pitcher. He played in Major League Baseball for the Philadelphia Phillies, Chicago Cubs, and St. Louis Cardinals. He was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1938.
1955 Denton True "Cy" Young (b 1867) American baseball player who pitched for five different major league teams from 1890 to 1911. Young was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937. One year after Young's death, the Cy Young Award was created to honor the previous season's best pitcher. During his 22-year career, Young established numerous professional pitching records in the majors, some of which have stood for a century. Young retired with 511 career wins, 94 wins ahead of Walter Johnson, who is second on the list of most wins in Major League history.
1989 Howard A. Rusk (b 1901) American physician and founder of the science of rehabilitation medicine (also known as physiatry or physical therapy), which he established through efforts to rehabilitate wounded soldiers during and after WW II. He established the Rehabilitation Services in the Air Force for the casualties returning from combat. The program operated in 215 hospitals and 12 rehabilitation centers.Now this specialized medical service is aimed at rehabilitating persons disabled by such diverse problems as fractures, burns, tuberculosis, painful backs, strokes, nerve and spinal cord injuries, diabetes, birth defects, arthritis, and vision and speech impairments. Between 1945 and 1970 he was a weekly columnist for New York Times.
1995 Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli prime minister; recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1922)
1995 Robert D. Preus, professor at Concordia Seminary (Saint Louis) and president of Concordia Theological Seminary (Springfield, Illinois, and Fort Wayne, Indiana), died in Shorewood, Minnesota (b. 16 October 1924).
1997 H. Richard Hornberger (b 1924) American writer and surgeon, born in Trenton, New Jersey, who wrote under the pseudonym Richard Hooker. His most famous work was MASH (1968), written in collaboration with W.C. Heinz, and which became the basis for a critically and commercially successful movie and television series.
2006 Ernestine Gilbreth Carey (b 1908) American author. (Cheaper by the Dozen, Belles on Their Toes,)
2008 John Michael Crichton (b 1942), best known as Michael Crichton, American author, producer, director, and screenwriter, best known for his work in the science fiction, medical fiction, and thriller genres. His books have sold over 150 million copies worldwide, and many have been adapted into films. In 1994, Crichton became the only creative artist ever to have works simultaneously charting at #1 in television, film, and book sales (with ER, Jurassic Park, and Disclosure, respectively).
Christian Feast Day:
Charles Borromeo (Roman Catholic Church)
Emeric of Hungary
Vitalis and Agricola (Roman Catholic Church)
Our Lady of Kazan (Russian Orthodox Church)
November 4 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Hierymartyr Nicander, bishop of Myra, and Hermas, presbyter, both disciples of Titus (1st c.)
Joannicius the Great of Bithynia (846)
Portrait of John III from a 15th-century manuscript
John Vatatzes the Merciful (John III Doukas Vatatzes, Emperor of Nicaea) (1254)
Theotokos of Kazan