This 1820 painting by Chester Harding is the only portrait of Daniel Boone made from life.
1734 Daniel Boone (d 1820) American pioneer, explorer, and frontiersman whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now the Commonwealth of Kentucky (Kentucky), which was then beyond the western borders of the settled part of Thirteen Colonies (This region legally belonged to both the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the American Indian Tribes.) Despite some resistance from American Indian tribes such as the Shawnee, in 1775 Boone blazed his Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap in the Appalachian Mountains - from North Carolina and Tennessee into Kentucky. There he founded the village of Boonesborough, Kentucky, one of the first English-speaking settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 European people migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Boone
1821 Collis Potter Huntington (d 1900) one of the Big Four of western railroading (along with Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins, and Charles Crocker) who built the Central Pacific Railroad as part of the first U.S. transcontinental railroad. Huntington then helped lead and develop other major interstate lines such as the Southern Pacific Railroad and the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway, which he was recruited to help complete. The C&O, completed in 1873, fulfilled a long-held dream of Virginians of a rail link from the James River at Richmond to the Ohio River Valley. The new railroad facilities adjacent to the river there resulted in expansion of the former small town of Guyandotte, West Virginia into part of a new city which was named Huntington in his honor. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collis_Potter_Huntington
1843 Stephen Moulton Babcock (d 1931) American agricultural research chemist, often called the father of scientific dairying, chiefly because of his development of the Babcock test (1890), a simple method of measuring the butterfat content of milk. It consists in liberating the fat globules by dissolving the casein in a strong acid and then separating the fat by means of a centrifuge. The test discouraged milk adulteration and provided for the first time an adequate standard by which fair payment for milk could be determined, stimulated improvement of dairy production, and aided in factory manufacture of cheese and butter. He worked for 43 years at the University of Wisconsin, where he established a laboratory where he carried out pioneering research in nutrition and in the chemistry of vitamins. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Moulton_Babcock
1881 Clinton Joseph Davisson (d 1958) American experimental physicist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1937 with George P. Thomson of England for discovering that electrons can be diffracted like light waves. Davisson studied the effect of electron bombardment on surfaces, and observed (1925) the angle of reflection could depend on crystal orientation. Following Louis de Broglie's theory of the wave nature of particles, he realized that his results could be due to diffraction of electrons by the pattern of atoms on the crystal surface. Davisson worked with Lester Germer in an experiment in which electrons bouncing off a nickel surface produced wave patterns similar to those formed by light reflected from a diffraction grating, and supporting de Broglie's electron wavelength = (h/p). en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinton_Joseph_Davisson
1887 John Silas "Jack" Reed (d 1920) American journalist, poet, and communist activist, best remembered for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World. He was married to writer and feminist Louise Bryant. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Reed_(journalist)
1896 Charles Glen King (d 1988) American biochemist who discovered vitamin C, an aid in the prevention of scurvy and malnutrition. After five years of painstaking research extracting components from lemon juice, in 1932, King isolated vitamin C. Its structure was quickly determined and it was synthesized by scientists such as Haworth and Reichstein in 1933. Also known as ascorbic acid, (a- = not, without; scorbus = scurvy), vitamin C is a colourless crystalline water-soluble vitamin found especially in citrus fruits and green vegetables. Most organisms synthesize it from glucose but man and other primates and various other species must obtain it from their diet. It is required for the maintenance of healthy connective tissue; deficiency leads to scurvy. Vitamin C is readily destroyed by heat and light. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Glen_King
1902 Frank Harold Spedding (d 1984) American chemist who, during the 1940s and '50s, developed processes for reducing individual rare-earth elements to the metallic state at low cost, thereby making these substances available to industry at reasonable prices. Earlier, upon the discovery of nuclear fission in 1939, the U.S. government asked leading scientists to join in the development of nuclear energy. In 1942, Iowa State College's Frank H. Spedding, an expert in the chemistry of rare earths, agreed to set up the Ames portion of the Manhattan Project, resulting in an easy and inexpensive procedure to produce high quality uranium. Between 1942 and 1945, almost two million pounds of uranium was processed on campus, in the old Popcorn Laboratory. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Harold_Spedding
1903 George Wells Beadle (d 1989) American geneticist who helped found biochemical genetics when he showed that genes affect heredity genes act by regulating definite chemical events. He shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Edward Tatum and Joshua Lederberg. Beadle and Tatum succeeded in demonstrating that the body substances are synthesized in the individual cell step by step in long chains of chemical reactions, and that genes control these processes by individually regulating definite steps in the synthesis chain. This regulation takes place through formation by the gene of special enzymes. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Wells_Beadle
1903 Curly Howard, born Jerome Lester Horwitz, Howard was one of the Three Stooges, along with his brother Moe Howard and Larry Fine. (d. 1952) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curly_Howard
1905 Karl Guthe Jansky (d 1950) American electrical engineer who discovered cosmic radio emissions in 1932. At Bell Laboratories in NJ, Jansky was tracking down the crackling static noises that plagued overseas telephone reception. He found certain radio waves came from a specific region on the sky every 23 hours and 56 minutes, from the direction of Sagittarius toward the center of the Milky Way. In the publication of his results, he suggested that the radio emission was somehow connected to the Milky Way and that it originated not from stars but from ionized interstellar gas. At the age of 26, Jansky had made a historic discovery - that celestial bodies could emit radio waves as well as light waves. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Guthe_Jansky
1907 James Emory "Jimmie" Foxx (d 1967) (nicknamed Double X and The Beast) was a right-handed American first baseman and noted power hitter in Major League Baseball. Foxx was the second major league player to hit 500 career home runs, after Babe Ruth; and, at age 32 years 336 days, is the second youngest to reach that mark, behind Alex Rodriguez. His three career Most Valuable Player awards are tied for second all-time. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmie_Foxx
1908 John Thomas Gould (d 2003) American humorist, essayist, and columnist who wrote a column for the Christian Science Monitor for over sixty years from a farm in Lisbon Falls, Maine. He was published in most major American newspapers and magazines and wrote thirty books. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Gould_(columnist)
1938 Christopher Lloyd, American actor. Among his best-known roles are Emmett "Doc" Brown in the Back to the Future trilogy, Uncle Fester in The Addams Family and its sequel Addams Family Values, and Judge Doom in Who Framed Roger Rabbit. He rose to prominence in the 1980s as Jim Ignatowski in the television series Taxi. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Lloyd
1942 Annette Joanne Funicello American singer and actress. She was Walt Disney's most popular cast member of The Mickey Mouse Club, and went on to appear in a series of beach party films. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annette_Funicello
1947 Haley Barbour, American Republican politician who served as the 62nd Governor of Mississippi, from 2004 to 2012. He was given a national spotlight in August 2005 when Mississippi was hit by Hurricane Katrina. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haley_Barbour
741 Charles Martel or Charles the Hammer, credited with saving Europe from Islam by defeating the Moors at the Battle of Tours. This effectively meant, that Islamic culture would remain south of the Pyrenees in what is modern day Spain. Although fighting would continue between invading Moslem armies and defending Christian armies, most of Europe was destined to be Christian. This division would have profound consequences for the development of Jewish civilizations in various parts of Europe, Africa and Asia. Charles Martel was the grandfather of Charlemagne, the great French leader and effectively the first Holy Roman Emperor. Charlemagne treated his Jewish subjects comparatively well even in the face of pressure from the Catholic Church en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Martel
1775 Peyton Randolph, (b 1721) planter and public official from the Colony of Virginia. He served as speaker of the Virginia House of Burgesses, chairman of the Virginia Conventions, and the first President of the Continental Congress. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peyton_Randolph
1808 Benjamin Randall, Free Will Baptist founder.
Elder Randall drew his breath with difficulty. It was 1808 and the founder of the Free Will Baptists was dying of tuberculosis. "Brother Randal, don't you sometimes long to die, that you may get into heaven?" asked a minister who was visiting him.
"No," replied Elder Randall. "For I am in heaven now, and have been through all my sickness: I have enjoyed the presence of God through it all, and that is heaven to me."
As a young man Benjamin Randall had thought he was a Christian, while actually there was resistance to Christ in him. He went to hear the renowned evangelist George Whitefield, who was preaching in New England, but only to find fault; He accused the evangelist of being nothing but a noisy ranter who tried to play on people's emotions.
His attitude changed on September 30, 1770, however, when a man rode by announcing that Whitefield was dead. "As soon as his voice reached my ears, an arrow from the quiver of the Almighty struck through my heart; and a mental voice sounded through my soul, louder than ever thunder sounded through my ears. The first thoughts that passed through my mind were, 'Whitefield is now in heaven, and I am in the road to hell. I shall never hear his voice any more. He was a man of God, and I have reviled him, and spoken reproachfully of him. He has taught me the way to heaven; but I regarded it not...'"
This was a crucial moment in Benjamin's life and led directly to the work for which he is famed. For over two weeks, he lived in terror, crying constantly to God for mercy. Not until he believed a Bible verse found in the letter to Hebrews, chapter nine, verse 26, did he find relief. "But now once in the end of the world has he [Christ] appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself." Such peace came over Benjamin that he began to leap with joy. "Ah, it seemed if I had ten thousand souls, I could trust them all with Jesus. I saw in him a universal love, a universal atonement, a universal call to mankind, and was confident that none would ever perish, but those who refused to obey it."
He became a member of the Congregational church that he had attended most of his life. However, his reading of the scriptures led him to believe that Baptist doctrine was more accurate. He was baptized as an adult and joined the Baptists. In 1777, he felt God was calling him to become a Baptist layman preacher. But his spiritual migrations was not yet over. Two years later, having decided that his denomination's strict Calvinist views about Predestination (that some men are chosen beforehand by God to be saved, and others to be damned) were out of line with true Bible teaching, he left, becoming the main leader of the Free Will Baptists in the Northern states.
Benjamin rode thousands of miles a year, winning converts. He was the single most influential force in putting the Free Will Baptists on the map of the Northern United States. Even in his last illness, his concern was all for Christ. He wrote to his people, "For Christ's sake, my brethren, let us be little, humble, cross-bearing disciples. See to it, that we do not get any new-fangled, heady, wordy, tonguey doctrine of men, which leads from Christ instead of leading to him."
1815 Oziel Wilkinson(b 1744) American blacksmith and inventor who began manufacturing farm tools, domestic utensils and cut nails using water power at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, from about 1783. He expanded with an anchor-forging shop the next year, and later added a metal rolling and slitting mill. About 1786, he began making iron screws for clothier's and oil presses. In 1791 he built a reverbatory air furnace. By 1800, Wilkinson and his sons had established themselves as the centre of iron products manufacturing in New England, supplying the machinery parts needed by new industries. Wilkinson joined his son-in-law Samuel Slater in the textile industry. Oziel's son, David furnished the iron forgings and castings for the first carding and spinning machines at Slater's Mill. files.asme.org/ASMEORG/Communities/History/Landmarks/5659.pdf en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Wilkinson_(machinist)
1932 Anna Elizabeth Dickinson (b 1842) American orator and lecturer. An advocate for the abolition of slavery and for women's suffrage, as well as a gifted teacher, Dickinson was the first woman to speak before the United States Congress. A gifted speaker at a very young age, she aided the Republican Party in the hard-fought 1863 elections and significantly influenced the distribution of political power in the Union just prior to the Civil War. Dickinson also was the first white woman on record to climb Colorado’s Longs Peak, in 1873. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_Elizabeth_Dickinson
1934 Pretty Boy Floyd, American gangster (b. 1904)
1963 Elvin Morton Jellinek (b 1890) American physiologist who was a pioneer in the scientific study of the nature and causes of alcoholism and in descriptions of its symptomatology. He was an early proponent of the disease theory of alcoholism, arguing with great persuasiveness that alcoholics should be treated as sick people. Jellinek gathered and summarized his own research and that of others in the important and authoritative works Alcohol Explored (1942) and The Disease Concept of Alcoholism (1960). In the latter book, Jellinek also recognized that some features of the disease (e.g., inability to abstain and loss of control) were shaped by cultural factors. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elvin_Morton_Jellinek
1994 Dr. Rollo May (b 1909) American psychologist. May is the best known American existential psychologist. Much of his thinking can be understood by reading about existentialism in general, and the overlap between his ideas and the ideas of Ludwig Binswanger is great. Nevertheless, he is a little off of the mainstream in that he was more influenced by American humanism than the Europeans, and more interested in reconciling existential psychology with other approaches, especially Freud’s. In 1958, he edited, with Ernest Angel and Henri Ellenberger, the book Existence, which introduced existential psychology to the US. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rollo_May
1736 William Shippen, Jr. (d 1808) First systematic teacher of anatomy, surgery, and obstetrics in the United States. In addition to pictures and casts of the human body, he was also one of the first to use dissected human bodies in the teaching of anatomy in America. This aroused the animosity of the populace - his dissecting rooms were mobbed on several occasions, and once he narrowly escaped with his life - but his courses were very successful, and the number of students increased year by year. He lectured on both anatomy and midwifery. In 1762 he established the first American maternity hospital in Philadelphia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Shippen,_Jr.
1785 Henry Miller Shreve (d 1851) American steamboat designer and builder who helped develop the commercial potential of the inland waterways of the Mississippi River system. Within a few years of Robert Fulton's successful steamboat experiment (1807), Shreve had built his own, the Enterprise (1813), which made the first complete upriver trip from New Orleans to Pittsburgh. He fought legal battles against Fulton's monopoly on river routes. By 1821, Shreve addressed the need to make navigation safer by clearing the river of obstructions. He created snag-boats with a jaw-like bow able to pull up snags (tree trunks), and put them through a sawmill on their deck. Shreve's work was a major contribution to the great era of steamboat traffic prior to the Civil War. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Miller_Shreve
1808 Samuel Francis Smith, Boston, Massachussets. A graduate of Andover Theological Seminary in 1834, he pastored the Baptist church at Waterville, Maine (1834-42) and the Baptist church of Newton, Massachussets (1842-1854). After that, he was editorial secretary of the American Baptist Missionary Union. Smith had a lifelong interest in hymnology and is credited with about 100 hymns, including "America," which he wrote at age 23 while in seminary. He felt the United States need a Christian patriotic song. In 1843, he helped compile The Psalmist, the most widely used Baptist hymnal of the day. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Francis_Smith www.hymntime.com/tch/bio/s/m/i/smith_sf.htm
1833 Alfred Bernhard Nobel (d 1896) Swedish chemist and inventor of dynamite and other, more powerful explosives, was born in Stockholm. An explosives expert like his father, in 1866 he invented a safe and manageable form of nitroglycerin he called dynamite, and later, smokeless gunpowder and (1875) gelignite. He helped to create an industrial empire manufacturing many of his other inventions. Nobel amassed a huge fortune, much of which he left in a fund to endow the annual prizes that bear his name. First awarded in 1901, these prizes were for achievements in the areas of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. The sixth prize, for economics, was instituted in his honour in 1969. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Bernhard_Nobel
1877 Oswald Theodore Avery (d 1955) Canadian-born American physician and medical researcher. The major part of his career was spent at the Rockefeller University Hospital in New York City. Avery was one of the first molecular biologists and a pioneer in immunochemistry, but he is best known for his discovery in 1944, with his co-workers Colin MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty, that DNA is the material of which genes and chromosomes are made. The Nobel laureate Arne Tiselius said that Avery was the most deserving scientist not to receive the Nobel Prize for his work. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oswald_Theodore_Avery
1879 Eugene Burton Ely (d 1911) aviation pioneer, credited with the first shipboard aircraft take off and landing.
1884 Wm. Carl Burhop in Fraser, Michigan (d 7 Nov 1966). He graduated from Concordia Seminary (Saint Louis) in 1908 and served as pastor of Saint Paul Lutheran Church (Kansas City, Missouri, 1908–1912) and Redeemer Lutheran Church (Baltimore, Maryland, 1912–1917). He was a professor at Concordia College (Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1917–1926) and president of the college there beginning in 1926.
1892 James L Kelso, American Presbyterian archaeologist. He participated in digs at the biblical sites of Debir, Bethel and Jericho, and authored the text "Ceramic Vocabulary of the O.T."
Whenever a professional archaeologist turns to a careful, detailed study of the gospels, only one thing dominates all his thinking. This is Jesus Christ himself. The personality of the Christ is unique and alone in all of human history. The archaeologist realizes more than anyone else the difference between B.C. and A.D."
Whether James L. Kelso, an American Presbyterian archaeologist, actually spoke for the majority archaeologists when he wrote those words is debatable, but there is no doubt he revealed his own mind. A Professor of Old Testament History and Biblical Archaeology at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, James was a top-notch teacher, who demanded high performance but also knew how to ease a student "over the hump" with hours of private assistance. He spent much of his life in expeditions to Palestine. The focus of these trips (as was the focus of his preaching and teaching) was to understand Christ better and illuminate Him for others.
Born on this day, October 21, 1892 in Duluth, Minnesota, James began teaching at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary in 1923 and participated in his first Palestine dig in 1926, at ancient Debir. After nine more expeditions, in which he undertook further exploration at Debir as well as at Bethel, Jericho and Nitla, James wrote a lively book, crystalizing years of research on his favorite theme.
That theme was Christ. In An Archaeologist Looks at the Gospels, James helped bring the world of Christ alive. Exclaiming over the crucifixion, he noted that "The cross was Christ's royal throne." This was because Christ lay down his life by choice and "died at his own appointed time." He was in sovereign control--on his throne--even on the cross.
James showed what he meant by the difference between B.C. and A.D. For example, he contrasted pre-Christian ethics with post-Christian. "With the coming of Christ, ethics suddenly became something completely different, something uniquely new. Now we have Christ himself and his own standards as par!" Christ taught--and lived--love whereas "...it was the duty of the Essenes to hate everyone whom God had rejected. They were also to hate the sons of darkness. And the hatred of which the Essenes spoke was eternal hatred."
James contributed other works to our knowledge of Bible archaeology, including his Ceramic Vocabulary of the Old Testament. Having spent many years in the mideast, he did not share the common evangelical admiration for the Jewish state of Israel, deploring its spiteful and ruthless treatment of Christian property and lives in the 1967 war.
1911 William A. Mitchell (d 2004) American food scientist who invented Pop Rocks candy, Cool Whip, the orange drink mix Tang, and quick-set Jell-O Gelatin. He developed a tapioca substitute during WW II since tapioca itself was limited in supply. For 35 years, he worked worked as a chemist for General Foods Corp, and held more than 70 patents. Pop Rocks - exploding candy - was patented in 1956, but not marketed until 1975. Its novelty quickly caught the public's attention. It was an accidental discovery while experimenting to produce an instant soft drink. It is a hard candy manufactured by pressurizing carbon dioxide at 600 psi in a candy syrup at 150 °C. When cooled and solidified it traps small pockets of carbon dioxide that "explode" in a person's mouth. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_A._Mitchell
1914 Samuel W. Alderson (d 2005) American physicist and engineer who invented the crash-test dummy used to test the safety of cars, parachutes and other devices. From the 1930's, when safety of cars during a crash was tested, cadavers had been used. When he started a company in 1952, Alderson Research Laboratories, which designed an anthropomorphic dummy, the first application was for testing jet ejection seats. In 1968, he produced a dummy (called the V.I.P.) built specifically for automotive testing with built-in instruments for collecting data. It had articulated joints with dimensions and weight distribution like an average adult man. His company later also made medical phantoms for simulations such as synthetic wounds that oozed mock blood. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_W._Alderson
1914 Martin Gardner (d 2010) American mathematics and science writer specializing in recreational mathematics, but with interests encompassing micromagic, stage magic, literature (especially the writings of Lewis Carroll), philosophy, scientific skepticism, and religion. He wrote the Mathematical Games column in Scientific American from 1956 to 1981, the Notes of a Fringe-Watcher column in Skeptical Inquirer from 1983 to 2002, and published over 70 books. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Gardner
1918 Milton Himmelfarb (d 2006) American sociographer of the American Jewish community, worked for four decades at the American Jewish Committee where he was director of information and research services. He edited various versions of the American Jewish Yearbook. He also was a contributing editor of Commentary, the monthly journal of opinion. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_Himmelfarb
1928 Edward Charles "Whitey" Ford former Major League Baseball pitcher who spent his entire 18-year career with the New York Yankees. He was voted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1974. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whitey_Ford
1942 Judith Sheindlin , better known as Judge Judy, American lawyer, judge, television personality and author. She passed the New York bar exam in 1965 and became a prosecutor in the family court system. In 1976, Mayor Ed Koch appointed her a judge, first in criminal court and later, in 1980, as Manhattan's supervising family court judge. She was featured on CBS's 60 Minutes in the 1990s as a result of her reputation as a tough judge. Since retiring in 1996, Sheindlin has garnered much fame for presiding over her own syndicated courtroom show, Judge Judy. The show's ratings have consistently ranked highly en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith_Sheindlin
1950 Ronald Erwin McNair (d 1986) American physicist and astronaut who was the second African American to fly in space.He had been fascinated by space since childhood, when as early as in elementary school he talked about the Sputnik satellite. McNair was nationally recognized for his work in the field of laser physics, including chemical and high-pressure lasers. In 1978, he was one of 35 applicants selected from a pool of 10,000 for NASA's space shuttle program. He was assigned as a mission specialist on the Feb 1984 flight of the shuttle Challenger, during which he orbited the earth 122 times. Sadly, on his second trip, on the morning of 28 Jan 1986, McNair with six other crew members died in an explosion shortly after launching aboard the Challenger. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Erwin_McNair
1938 Dorothy Hale (b 11 Jan 1905) American socialite and aspiring actress who killed herself by jumping off a building in New York City. Hale was considered a remarkably beautiful woman with less remarkable talents who was introduced to high society and luxury living. Her husband's death, followed by several unsuccessful relationships, left her financially dependent on her wealthy friends. She committed suicide in October 1938. The artist Frida Kahlo created a famous painting based on her death, titled The Suicide of Dorothy Hale. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothy_Hale
1940 William Gustavus Conley, Charleston, West Virginia (b 1866, Preston County, West Virginia)) American politician who served as the 18th Governor of West Virginia as a Republican from 1929 to 1933. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Gustavus_Conley
1969 Jean-Louis "Jack" Kerouac (b 1922) American novelist and poet. He is considered a literary iconoclast, and alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation. Kerouac is recognized for his spontaneous method of writing covering topics such as jazz, promiscuity, Buddhism, drugs, poverty, and travel. His writings have inspired other writers, including Hunter S. Thompson, Tom Robbins, Thomas Pynchon, Lester Bangs, Will Clarke, Richard Brautigan, Ken Kesey, Haruki Murakami, Jon Foreman, and Bob Dylan. Unsympathetic critics of his work have labeled it "slapdash", "grossly sentimental", and "immoral". Kerouac became an underground celebrity and, with other beats, a progenitor of the Hippie movement. At age 47 in 1969 Kerouac died from internal bleeding due to long-standing abuse of alcohol. Since his death Kerouac's literary prestige has grown and several previously unseen works have been published. All of his books are in print today, among them: On the Road, The Dharma Bums, Mexico City Blues, The Subterraneans, Desolation Angels, Visions of Cody and Big Sur. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Kerouac
1970 John T. Scopes (b. 3 Aug 1900). He was a Tennessee high school biology teacher who in 1925 went on trial for violating the Butler Act, which prohibited the teaching of evolution in Tennessee schools. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_T._Scopes
1975 Charles Reidpath, American runner, winner of two gold medals at the 1912 Summer Olympics, who later went on to have an outstanding military career (b. 1887) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Reidpath
2003 Anna Louise Day Hicks (b 1916) was an American politician and lawyer from Boston, Massachusetts, best known for her staunch opposition to court-ordered busing in the 1960s and 1970s. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_Louise_Day_Hicks
2012 George McGovern, American historian, author, U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, and the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 1972 presidential election. (b. 1922) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_McGovern
Holidays and observances
Christian Feast Day:
John of Bridlington
October 21 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
St. Hilarion the Great of Gaza (371)
Hieromartyr Priest Socrates and Martyr Theodote, of Ancyra (ca. 230)
Martyrs Dasius, Gaius, and Zoticus at Nicomedia (303)
Saints Theophilus and James, abbots of Omutch (Pskov) (ca 1412)
St. Hilarion, abbot of Gdov (Pskov) (1476)
St. Hilarion, Schemamonk of the Kiev Caves (1067)
St. Philotheus of Neapolis and of Mt. Athos (14th century)
Saints Vissarion (Bessarion) Sarai, hieromonk, and Sophronie of Ciorara, monk, confessors, and St. Oprea of Sălişte
New Martyr John of Monemvasia, Peloponnesus, at Larissa (1773)
Hiero-confessors John of Galeёs (Ioan din Galeş) and Moses (M˘acinic), priests of Sibiel (Transylvania) (18th century)
New Hieromartyrs Paulinus (Kroshechkin), archbishop of Mogilev; Damian (Voskresensky), archbishop of Kursk; Arcadius (Pavlovich), bishop of Ekaterinburg; priests Anatole and Nicander; and Martyr Cyprian (1937)
Translation of the relics of St. Christodulus the Wonderworker of Patmos (1093)
Translation of the relics (1206) of St. Hilarion, bishop of Meglin, Bulgaria (1164)
Repose of Schema-archimandrite Herman (Bogdanov) (1938) and his fellow ascetic Archimandrite Sergius (Ozerov), of New Valaam in Siberia